These short articles are written to highlight connections of the plants, history and lore of the Eloise Butler Wildflower Garden with different time frames or outside connections. A web of intersections.
August 22, 2021: Minnesota connections to naturalist Joseph Banks.
Those who publish the description of a plant, its genus and species, are memorialized as the author of the plant classification by having their name appended to the Latin name. Many have remarkable stories and backgrounds and few more interesting then Englishman Joseph Banks (1743-1820), the foremost English naturalist and botanist of the time. He was leader of the of the scientific group on James Cook’s first voyage around the world on the Endeavour (1768-1771). He introduced eucalyptus and acacia to the western world and became president of the Royal Society in 1778.
Five species are found in Minnesota that still bear his name in the classification and four of the five were once in the Butler Wildflower Garden - Roundleaf Orchid, Bluntleaved Orchid, a variety of Small White Violet and a variety of Roundleaf violet. The other, Arrowleaf Sweet Coltsfoot is prevalent in Minnesota but never entered the Garden.
One other species in our state bears his name, but as an honorary - Jack Pine, Pinus banksiana.
He was to have had the same position on Cook’s 2nd voyage in 1772-1775 but he was so demanding as to size of staff, baggage and accommodations on board that Cook refused to take him.
Roundleaf Orchid, Amerorchis rotundifolia, first in the Garden in 1912 (photo)
Bluntleaved Orchid, Platanthera obtusata, first in the Garden in 1918 (photo)
Small White Violet, Viola macloskey sub. palllens, indigenous
Roundleaf violet, Viola rotundiflora var. pallens, first in the Garden in 1908
Arrowleaf Sweet Coltsfoot, Petasities frigidus var. sagittaus.
None of the four Garden plants are extant but eh Sweet White Violet is still found in the Quaking Bog. Jack Pine is found just outside the Garden fence.
Below: Joseph Banks, painted by Benjamin West, 1773
Our native common cattail, Typha latifolia, is found in almost all Minnesota counties and all across North America. The Narrow-leaved cattail, Typha angustifolia, is much more aggressive and has become quite an invasive pest in the mid-continent area where it out-competes T. latifolia, especially if an area has been disturbed. In many marshes around the Mpls/St. Paul metro area either T. angustifolia is predominant or, the new guy, a hybrid between the two species, known as Typha x glauca (T. angustifolia x latifolia) is predominant. In fact the U of M Herbarium states that in the 20 counties where the hybrid has been reported, it is more widespread and dominates the other two species. It dominates to such an extent that the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources (DNR) states that habitat for waterfowl is being destroyed with a lot of wetlands becoming biological deserts.
You need a good hand lens to distinguish the hybrid but here are the tips for separating the other two. The common has a fatter stalk, wider but thiner leaf and no gap between the male and female flowers in the flowering stem, whereas the narrow-leaved has a thinner stalk, narrower but thicker leaf and a gap between male and female flowers. Details in the photos. More details on our cattail plant page.
July 23, 2021: Eloise and Monet
Both Eloise Butler and Claude Monet were contemporaries; both wanted a plant garden and a water garden; both achieved what they wanted and both accommodated what many would call a weed. In 1911 Eloise Butler wrote “I sometimes think, if I have any mission in this world, it is to teach the decorative value of common weeds. A weed is simply a plant out of place.”
One example out of many was the use of Common Mullein, Verbascum thapsus, now in full bloom in our area. It is an indigenous inhabitant of our wild flower garden and Monet used it at Giverny, to underplant the clematis arches bringing it in to make use of the tall stalks and color, then he left them to reseed where they fell. Other shared common plants were Water Smartweed, Virginia Creeper, Dame’s Rocket and Yellow Flag. Like Eloise he preferred a more wild look when he lived there. For more of this story use this link.
Below: The photo shows Monet at Giverny in 1924, photo courtesy Sygma, London
July 5, 2021: It would not grow for her!
Fireweed, or Great Willow Herb (Chamerion angustifolium), was an elusive plant for Eloise Butler - she told her friend Gertrude Cram that nothing would ever induce it to grow for her. She didn’t know where to find it locally so she bought some from Massachusetts in 1907 but the wrong plant was sent. On her return to Minneapolis from the east coast in August 1908, her train broke down near Mackay Ontario and while waiting for repairs she spotted lots of it out the train car window and promptly filled a suitcase with it. She later found a source beyond White Bear Lake.
Fireweed is an international plant, found in Europe and North America. It was used for tea in England and Russia, for salads in many places, and for medicinal purposes by the Minnesota Ojibwa.
The origin of the name has to do with the mistaken belief that it primarily colonized recently burnt-over sites, but some other plants do likewise and they also picked up that common name. In reality any recent bare spot is game for this plant. Mrs. Grieve (A Modern Herbal, 1931) notes that the plant would spring up in a town, self-sown, on waste ground recently cleared of centuries old buildings. She specifically mentions areas in London around Aldwych and Westminster where old buildings were torn down and the ground remained in a wasted state for some time, though no one could explain where the seeds came from.
Paleo-archaeologist Mary Leakey wrote that upon returning to London from Kenya after the Blitz and the War  there were unfilled craters and uncleared rubble everywhere. "Later in the year we saw some of the devastated areas in the city become pink with flowering spikes of willow-herb, which had colonized the open spaces and was by now well established and thriving there.”