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Plants of the Eloise Butler Wildflower Garden

The oldest public wildflower garden in the United States

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Common Name
Queen of the Prairie

 

Scientific Name
Filipendula rubra (Hill) B.L.Rob.

 

Plant Family
Rose (Rosaceae)

Garden Location
Woodland

 

Prime Season
Early to Late Summer Flowering (before August).

 

 

Queen of the Prairie is an erect perennial growing from 3 to 6 feet high on a grooved, sometimes branched stem which can be green to reddish.

Leaves are compound, having up to 7 leaflets arranged along a reddish leaf stem and each lateral leaflet has from 2 to 3 deeply cleft lobes. Terminal leaflets are larger with 7 to 9 lobes. Leaf stalks have stipules with serrated edges and with auricles at the base of the stalk. The auricles partially surround the stem.

The inflorescence is a tightly branched panicle on a long stalk and on each panicle branch the flowers open from bottom to top.

Flowers are 5-parted, with widely spreading pink petals that are rounded and then abruptly narrowed to a clawed base. There are 5 green short sepals which reflex when the flower opens. The exserted stamens are equal in length or slightly longer than the petals, have long pinkish filaments and pink anthers. These number about 10 to 20 and surround a cluster of 3 to 7 pinkish pistils. Each flower is on a short stalk. They are not fragrant, have no nectar, but provide pollen for pollinators.

Seed: Flowers mature to small achenes, red at maturity, 8 to 14 mm long, that are cylindrical, smooth and not twisted. Seeds require 90 days of cold stratification for germination. One growing however, root divisions are easier as the plant has a strong root system.

 

Habitat: The plants habitat is from wet to wet-mesic but in full sun. In partial sun the flower stems will tend to lean. In partial sun moisture conditions can be mesic. The root is strongly rhizomatous and will form irregular colonies under the correct moist conditions. This species does not have root tubers.

Names: The Scientific name of Filipendula is from the Latin filum for "thread" and pendulus for "hanging," referring to how the small root tubers are strung together by fibrous roots in the species F. vulgaris, which is the type species for the genus and the only species which has the tubers. The species name rubra is Latin for" red". The author names for the plant classification are: First to classify was ‘Hill’ which refers to John Hill (c1716-1775), English botanist, author of 76 works including the 26 volume The Vegetable System. His work on this species was updated by ‘B.L.Rob.’ - Benjamin Lincoln Robinson, (1864-1935) American Botanist.

Comparisons: A similar plant is the introduced Queen of the Meadow, F. ulmaria, which has white flowers, a leaf with less deeply lobed leaflets and a seed that is twisted.

See bottom of page for notes on the Garden's planting history, distribution in Minnesota and North America, lore and other references.

inflorescencedrawing

Above: The tall inflorescence of Queen of the Prairie. Drawing from Britton, N.L., and A. Brown. 1913. An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 vols. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.

Below: 1st photo - The inflorescence is a panicle of several tight branches. 2nd photo - The compound leaf has the individual leaflets strung out along the leaf stalk with a larger terminal leaflet. 3rd photo - Where the leaf joins the stem you will usually find these small leaf segments (stipules) on the petiole.

Queen of the Prairie Queen of the prairie leaf Queen of the Prairie leaf segment

Below: 1st photo - The individual 5-parted flowers with their long stamens that have pink filaments and pink anthers. 2nd photo - The terminal leaflet of the compound leaf, showing the deeply cleft lobes.

Queen of the prairie flower Queen of the prairie leafs

Below: 1st photo - The root structure of Queen of the Prairie showing the rhizomatous roots. 2nd photo - For comparison is the leaf of a similar plant, Queen of the Meadow, Filipendula ulmaria, the leaflets are not deeply lobed like F. rubra.

Queen of the Prairie root Queen of the Meadow leaf

Below: The small fruits of Queen of the Prairie shown here in the development stage, (red at maturity), are cylindrical, smooth and not twisted. Those of Queen of the Meadow, F. ulmaria, have a spiral twist.

Queen of the Prairie seed seeds
Queen of the Prairie inflorescence

Notes:

Notes: While considered a native plant in a number of states, some, such as Minnesota and Wisconsin, consider it to be an escapee from cultivation. Minnesota considers it to be non-native as only one population was ever found in Minnesota in the wild and that from near Duluth in 2009 where it probably escaped from a garden. It is a more recent addition to the Garden. It was not included on the 1951 or 1986 Garden census. It grows in the sunny part of the Woodland marsh area near the white flowered Queen of the Meadow.

References and site links

References: Plant characteristics are generally from sources 1A, 32, W2, W3, W7 & W8 plus others as specifically applied. Distribution principally from W1, W2 and 28C. Planting history generally from 1, 4 & 4a. Other sources by specific reference. See Reference List for details.

graphicIdentification booklet for most of the flowering forbs and small flowering shrubs of the Eloise Butler Wildflower Garden. Details Here.



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