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Plants of the Eloise Butler Wildflower Garden

The oldest public wildflower garden in the United States

Pale Dogwood

Common Name
Silky Dogwood (Pale Dogwood, Swamp Dogwood, Blue-fruited Dogwood)

 

Scientific Name
Cornus amomum Mill.

 

Plant Family
Dogwood (Cornaceae)

Garden Location
Woodland

 

Prime Season
Late Spring to Early Summer

 

 

Silky Dogwood is a plant of moist places, that grows from 3 to 10 feet high as a multi-stemmed shrub, not as a small tree. Bark is reddish-purple on young thicker stems, turning brown with age. Twigs are grayish-green when new, then reddish-purple with silky hair and with buds that are hairy, pointed and appressed to the stem. The pith of older twigs is brown.

The leaves are opposite, entire, ovate to oval shape, 2 - 4 inches long, stalked, pale beneath and tapered at both ends. Leaf veins curve toward the tip. Stalks have fine hair.

The inflorescence is a flat branched cluster (a cyme ) about 2 inches wide.

The flowers are perfect, white, 4-part, 1/4 inch wide, with 4 white spreading lance-shaped petals, 4 stamens that arise alternate with the petals on long filaments with yellow anthers and a pistil with a single style that has a yellow-green knob-like tip. The green calyx is quite small. Flower stalks and the stalk of the cyme may have fine hair.

Fruit: The fruit is a 1/3 inch diameter round drupe containing one seed. Drupes are green initially and mature to a dark blue in late August.

Varieties: There are 2 known subspecies and one variety: var. schuetzeana, which is considered the species native to Minnesota; and then ssp. obliqua. Some authorities, such as USDA, consider both of these as forms and synonyms of Cornus obliqua. The second subspecies is ssp. amomum, a form of Cornus amomum. So we have two main scientific names that use the common name of 'Silky Dogwood'. Minnesota authorities, the DNR and the U of M Herbarium, simply list it (the species native to Minnesota) as C. amomum var. schuetzeana (Silky Dogwood). Eloise Butler also used C. amomum. The details between the variety differences are probably not pertinent to this general discussion of the species.

 

Habitat: Silky Dogwood grows in moist soils from a shallow spreading root system. Full sun is preferred but it will tolerate partial shade. A good specimen grows at the intersection of Lady's-slipper Lane and Geranium Path at the far end of the Woodland Garden. You will find it's branches intertwined with the Ninebark that grows next to it.

Names: The genus, Cornus, is from the Latin cormu which refers to a 'horn'. Most references believe that name was applied as a reference to the density of the wood of this genus, which also includes the boxwoods. Dogwood is very dense and was once used for loom shuttles. Cornus is also the old Latin name for the cornelian cherry, Cornus mas. The species obliqua, which means 'lopsided' or 'oblique' and refers to the drupe's stone pit which is of a lopsided shape, narrowed and pointed at the base. Other dogwoods have more round stones. The species name amomum, is from the Greek name amomom, referring to a spice plant. The author name for the plant classification - "Mill." is for Philip Miller, Scottish botanist (1691-1771) who was chief gardener at the Chelsea Physic Garden and wrote "The Gardener's Dictionary". For C. obliqua - ‘Raf.’ is for Constantine Samuel Rafinesque, (1783-1840), European polymath who traveled in the United States, lived here many years, collected specimens, and published over 6,700 binomial names for plants. He applied to be botanist on the Lewis & Clark expedition but Jefferson turned him down in favor of training Lewis to be botanist and saving the expense of another person.

Comparisons: There are four Dogwoods in the Garden. All have similar looking flowers. An identification key is presented below the photos.

See bottom of page for notes on the Garden's planting history, distribution in Minnesota and North America, lore and other references.

flower flower calyx

Above:The individual flowers have 4 spreading petals with the stamens rising opposite them. The green calyx of the flower head is very small.

Below: The upper side of the leaf - veins curve toward the tip. The underside of the leaf is paler color, often with very fine hair.

Pale Dogwood leaf topside Pale Dogwood leaf underside

Fruit Development

Below: 1st photo - Flower cluster of late-June. 2nd photo - Green fruit of early July.

Pale Dogwood Flower Pale Dogwood

Below: 1st photo - Fruit of early August. 2nd photo - Mature blue fruit of late August.

Pale Dogwood Pale dogwood Fruit

Below: 1st photo - Bark on medium age stems is reddish-purple. 2nd & 3rd photos - Twigs are grayish-green when new first year, then reddish-purple with silky hair and with buds that are hairy, pointed and lateral buds appressed to the stem.

Bark Twig Terminal buds

Comparison of 4 Dogwoods at Eloise Butler

Dogwood Species C. racemosa C. amomum (C. obliqua) C. alternifolia C. sericea
Common Name Gray Dogwood Silky Dogwood
(Pale Dogwood)
Pagoda Dogwood Red Osier Dogwood
Alternate Names Panicled Dogwood Silky Dogwood Alternate-leaf Dogwood  
Height & Size to 6' forming a thicket 3 to10' shrub to 30' small tree to 9' in thickets
Flowers All four dogwoods have small 4-part white flowers that are borne in branching clusters.
Flower cluster nearly as high as wide and NOT flat topped Flat-topped, flower stalks silky (hairy) Flat-topped, mostly at the ends of branches Flat-topped
Bloom period (typical - varies with season) mid- to late June late May to June Late May to mid-June Early May onwards.
Leaves Opposite, entire, stalked, oval to lance shape, pale under, veins curve to tip. Opposite, entire, stalked, ovate to oval shape, taper at both ends, pale under, veins curve to tip. Alternate, entire, stalked, broadly oval, rounded base, taper at tip. Glossy green above, form clusters at end of branches. 'Quilt-like' surface. Opposite, entire, stalked, oval to lance shaped, 5 to 7 pairs of veins, whitish under.
Branches Gray, smooth, some wart-ish bumps Purplish Greenish, smooth. Twigs red. Younger branches reddish in fall, winter and spring
Mature Fruit White with conspicuous red stalks dark blue dark blue white to lead
Native Status Native Native Native Native

Notes:

Notes: Eloise Butler originally introduced Silky Dogwood to the Garden on April 26, 1913 with plants obtained from Kelsey's Nursery in North Carolina. Her reference was to the scientific name C. amomum which in var. schuetzeana, is considered the species native to Minnesota. It is known in both Minnesota and North Carolina. This species was not listed on Martha Crone's 1951 Plant Census. Native to Minnesota in the east central counties and in the SE. In North America it grows from the central U.S. (Dakotas to Oklahoma) eastward to the coast, but no further south than Kentucky and Virginia. In Canada it is found from Ontario eastward.

References and site links

References: Plant characteristics are generally from sources 1A, 32, W2, W3, W7 & W8 plus others as specifically applied. Distribution principally from W1, W2 and 28C. Planting history generally from 1, 4 & 4a. Other sources by specific reference. See Reference List for details.

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