Marsh Bellflower is a native perennial plant, growing to 36 inches high, or we should say,"long", as it is usually leaning on other plants. The stems are weak, slender, somewhat 3-angled with rough edges. Stems are unbranched except near the inflorescence. They contain a milky sap.
Leaves: The narrow linear leaves are alternate, and differ in size between two varieties (notes below). They can be up to 2-1/2 inches long and about 12x longer than wide or up to 1-1/2 inches long and only 6x longer than wide. They are light green, thin, may have a few slight teeth, have rough edges and are rough on the mid-vein below.
The inflorescence is a single small flower on a diverging wiry stalk.
Flowers: Each funnel-shaped flower is 1/4 to 1/2 inch long, and usually somewhat nodding. They range from white to pale blue in color. The corolla lobes are fused at the base, then separate into 5 almost triangular lobes that spread outward. The main veins of the lobes lack most of the color of lobe and create a 'ribbed' appearance. The green calyx is fused at the base then separates into 5 triangular sharply pointed lobes. There are 5 stamens and a pistil with a single style that forms a stigma with 3 lobes.
Seed: Mature flowers form an ovoid ribbed capsule with 3 chambers that open near the base to release the many oblong seeds.
Varieties: Two -see bottom of page. In Eloise Butler's day one the varieties now named var. aparinoides, was named as the seperate species Campanula uliginosa.
Habitat: Marsh Bellflower requires full sun in moist to wet soils. It is frequently encountered along the edges of marsh vegetation where it is not overshadowed by larger plants.
Names: The genus Campanula, is derived from the Latin word Campana for 'bell', the shape of the flower. The species aparinoides, is from the Greek word Aparine for the plant Cleavers (Galium aparine) and meaning 'like cleavers' because the leaves resemble those of Cleavers. The author name for the plant classification, ‘Pursh’ is for Frederick Traugott Pursh (1774-1820) German-American botanist who wrote A Systematic Arrangement and Description of the Plants of North America, and was the botanist who catalogued and described the plants brought back by the exploring expedition of Lewis and Clark.
Comparisons: Marsh Bellflower is similar, but smaller, than the blue-violet flowered Harebell, Campanula rotundifolia. Other differences are that Harebell is more erect, not as tall, the leaves are not rough, the stem is smooth, and the calyx lobes are much more elongated.
Below: 1st photo - The twisty stems are long and lean on other plants for support. 2nd photo - Flowers are solitary atop a long wiry stalk. Corolla lobes are more acute than those of C. rotundifolia. 3rd photo - Leaves are 6x longer than wide on var. grandiflora - the shorter of the two varieties. Note the rough edges similar to Cleavers.
Below: 1st photo - The reproductive parts of the flower have 5 stamens and a pistil with a single style that forms a stigma with 3 lobes. 2nd photo - The green outer calyx has five sharp pointed lobes that persist onto the maturing seed capsule.
Below: The seed capsule forming. The calyx lobes will persist and the capsule will be flat-topped.
Below: A comparison of the five Garden Bellflowers.
Notes: Marsh Bellflower is the only native Bellflower that is definitely indigenous to the Garden. Eloise Butler noted in blooming on July 19, 1913, without ever planting any previously. It was present in the Garden at the time of Martha Crone's 1951 census but by the 1986 census it was missing. This plant is native to the eastern part of North America. In Canada from Saskatchewan eastward and in the US from the Central Plains eastward; south as far as Nebraska, Missouri, and then south to the rest of the SE except Florida. In Minnesota it is more widespread than C. rotundifolia, being found in almost all counties except those in the drier SW corner.
Varieties: Two are recognized and both are reported to be in Minnesota - var. grandiflora with leaves about 6x as long as wide and var. aparinoides with longer leaves - 12x as long as wide. The latter variety was, in earlier years treated as a separate species, C. uliginosa, and some references will currently list it as var. uliginosa, instead of the more accepted var. aparinoides. There are small differences in flower size. These differences are so slight that the MN DNR does not break down county survey data by variety. On Aug. 8, 1915 Eloise Butler made the following note in her log: "Discovered in east meadow Campanula uliginosa!! in abundance. This seems to be the prevailing species in the meadows, while C. aparinoides is found on somewhat drier ground bordering the meadows and paths."
Marsh Bellflower is one of 3 species of Campanula native to Minnesota. The other two are C. rotundifolia, Harebell and C. americana, the Tall Bellflower. Two others found in the state are introductions: C. cervicaria, Bristly bluebells; and C. rapunculoides, European Bellflower. The other bellflower found in the Garden, Clustered Bellflower, Campanula glomerata L., is an import and not found in Minnesota outside of gardens.
References: Plant characteristics are generally from sources 1A, 32, W2, W3, W7 & W8 plus others as specifically applied. Distribution principally from W1, W2 and 28C. Planting history generally from 1, 4 & 4a. Other sources by specific reference. See Reference List for details.
Friends of the Wild Flower Garden, Inc. Text and photos are by G. D. Bebeau unless otherwise credited. "www.friendsofthewildflowergarden.org"