Eloise Butler

The Writings of Eloise Butler

Notable Features of my Wild Garden, ca 1915 [Spring]


[Note: To facilitate identification of plants, we have taken the liberty of adding the information that is within brackets [] and also all the botanical names have been put into italics ]


Tamarack
One of the tall Tamarack in the Woodland Garden of Eloise Butler Wildflower Garden.

The site of the Wild Garden was chosen particularly on account of the tamarack swamp and adjacent meadows which contained several interesting or beautiful plants that were not to be found elsewhere in the vicinity of Minneapolis, as Linnaea [Twin flower], Showy lady’s-slipper [Cypripedium reginae Walter], False asphodel [Tofieldia] [T. pusilla [Michx.] and Triglochin [possibly either Marsh or Seaside Arrowgrass]. The pitcher-plant and Turk’s-cap lily also abundant. After linnaea, the chief pride of the garden, are the Fringed gentians, the larger and the smaller, crinita and detonsa, [the smaller is now considered to be Gentianopsis virgata] which grow luxuriantly, tinting the meadows blue in late August late into September.

Starflower
Starflower, Trientalis americana, Photo ©Thomas G. Barnes, USDA-NRCS Plants Database

Other plants that are prized for their beauty and that grow in large effective masses are Buckbean [Menyanthes trifoliata], dwarf cornel [Cornus canadensis], Pyrola asarifolia [Wintergreen], Trientalis americana [Starflower] Coptis trifolia [Threeleaf goldthread], Swamp milkweed [Asclepias incarnata], Eupatorium purpureum [Sweet-scented Joe Pye Weed], E. urticifolium [White Snakeroot].

Heliopsis scabra [Smooth Oxeye, now Heliopsis helianthoides [L.] Sweet var. scabra], Rudbeckia hirta [Black-eyed Susan], R. laciniata [Green-headed Coneflower], Monarda fistulosa [Wild Bergamot], Galium boreale [Northern Bedstraw], Ceanothus americanus [New Jersey Tea], Lathyrus venosus [Veiny pea], many goldenrods [the masses being chiefly [Solidago] canadensis [Canada Goldenrod], serotina [now Solidago gigantea Aiton, Giant Goldenrod] and latifolia [now Solidago flexicaulis L. - Zigzag Goldenrod]; the most splendid the speciosa [Showy Goldenrod]; the most interesting, S. uliginosa [Bog Goldenrod], a genuine rod in shape]. One of my banks in early spring is thronged with the pretty Anemonella thalictroides [Rue Anemone - Thalictrum thalictroides L.]. This gives way to an equally profuse growth of Wild geranium or cranesbill [Geranium maculatum L.], followed for the rest of the season by sunflowers, chiefly [Helianthus] strumosus [Paleleaf Woodland Sunflower] and tuberosus [Jerusalem artichoke]. It is a wonder that the soil can support such a rank succession. I have several other sunflowers in other places, and splendid masses particularly of H. grosseserratus [Sawtooth Sunflower], giganteus [Tall Sunflower], Maximiliani [Maximilian Sunflower] and scaberrimus [Cheerful Sunflower].

Twinflower
Twinflower, Linnaea borealis. Photo ©Kitty Kohout, University of Wisconsin, Steven's Point.
Fringed Gentian
Fringed Gentian, Gentiana crinita. Photo by Martha Crone in the Garden, 9/24/1950. Courtesy MN Historical Society.
Sawtooth Sunflower
Sawtooth Sunflower, Helianthus grosseserratus, Photo ©Bill Summers, USDA-NRCS Plants Database

Interrupted Fern
Interrupted fern, Osmunda claytoniana L.

Just now large patches of the little Wood anemone, Anemone quinquefolia, vie with the Anemonella. Visitors are interested in comparing these two species with the False rue anemone, Isopyrum biternatum [now Enemion biternatum], usually confused by novices. Marsh marigold [Caltha palustris L.] is now a golden glory. It is so abundant that cartloads could be removed without apparent loss. This is also true of the Interrupted fern [Osmunda claytoniana L]. The marsh fern [Thelypteris palustris Schott var. pubescens] is equally abundant in the meadows. The bog is stocked with splendid growths of Cinnamon fern [Osmunda cinnamomea] and Sensitive fern [Onoclea sensibilis L.] is much in evidence on the borders. Lady ferns [Athyrium filix-femina] and Maidenhair [Adiantum pedatum L.] rank next in abundance. We now have forty-one species of ferns, ten of which are indigenous.

Showy Orchid
Showy orchid, Galearis spectabilis, Photo ©Thomas G. Barnes, USDA-NRCS Plants Database

The bog is now fragrant with Viola blanda [Sweet white violet], among it is one lovely large mass of V. conspersa [American Dog or Alpine Violet, now Viola labradorica]. A little later, the adjacent meadow will be perfumed with my favorite Smilacina, the trifolia [Threeleaf false lily of the valley]. We have quantities, too, of the other Smilacinas and the closely related Maianthemum.

Introduced orchids thrive well in the garden. Among indigenous species we have Orchis spectabilis [Showy orchid, now Galearis spectabilis [L.] Raf.], Habenaria hyperborea [Leafy Green Orchis, now Platanthera huronensis Nutt.], Corallorhiza trifida [Yellow Coralroot], Liparis liliifolia [Large Twayblade], Aplectrum hyemale [Adam & Eve], Pogonia ophioglossoides [Rose Pogonia, now Calopogon pulchellus - Grasspink]. Spiranthes cernua [Nodding Ladies Tresses], besides the already mentioned Showy lady's-slipper.

The most notable spring event is the blossoming of the hawthorns. We have many trees that may be seen near at hand and in the far distance loaded with a snowy fleece of bloom. They blossom like apple trees, more profusely every other year. This is a good year.

American Dog Violet
American Dog Violet,Viola labradorica, Photo ©Thomas G. Barnes, USDA-NRCS Plants Database
Sweet White Violet
Sweet White Violet, Viola blanda, Photo ©Thomas G. Barnes, USDA-NRCS Plants Database
Grasspink
Grasspink (Rose Pogonia), Calopogon pulchellus, Photo ©Thomas G. Barnes, USDA-NRCS Plants Database


More information and photos on some of these plants can be found under these links:

Black-eyed Susan
Canada Goldenrod
Cinnamon Fern
False Rue Anemone
Green-headed Coneflower
Jerusalem Artichoke
Interrupted Fern
Lady Fern
Leafy Green Orchis
Maidenhair Fern
Marsh Arrowgrass
Marsh Marigold
New Jersey Tea
Northern Bedstraw
Paleleaf Sunflower
Rue Anemone
Sensitive Fern
Showy Goldenrod
Showy Lady's-slipper
Smooth Oxeye
Sweet-scented Joe Pye Weed
Swamp Milkweed
Turk's-cap Lily
Veiny Pea
White Snakeroot
Wild Bergamot
Wild Geranium
Wood Anemone
Zigzag Goldenrod
Tamarack