Friends of the Wild Flower Garden
Garden Gate

Site Plan and Archive


In the Archive pages you will find links to all the content on The Friends of the Wild Flower Garden web site. Unlike the main pages, links here are arranged by topic. These topics include links to articles previously published in The Friend's newsletter - The Fringed Gentian™.

Plant List by Scientific Name

Tabs to Other Archive Pages at Page Bottom

Pages for thumbnail photos only:
A - D - (by common name)
E - M - (by common name)
N - S - (by common name)
T - Z - (by common name)
Grasses/Sedges - (by scientific name)
Ferns - (by scientific name)

A sampling of plants of the Eloise Butler Wildflower Garden, both present and historic, and with a few others added in that are native to Minnesota or can be found in Minnesota or can be grown in Minnesota.

Clicking the web-link on the common name gives a page of photos and plant information in a separate window.

Plants without links to an info page will have a thumbnail photo in the thumbnail pages listed at right.

Flowering Forbs, Ferns, Grasses, Trees and Shrubs are all listed alphabetically
Historical (once present) and other plants not in the Garden are so noted.


Botanical classification: Over the last several years Botanists have reclassified many plants from previous classifications. In some cases consolidating species and varieties and in some cases reclassifying to a different genus or even plant family. We use Flora of North America; the Annotated Checklist of the Vascular Flora of Minnesota from the University of MN, then the USDA Plants Database which in early 2010 completed a major update of these botanical classifications and also the 2009 Garden Census. Reference books in print will not reflect these recent updates until revised editions are published. While many plants may be known by a previous botanical name and, in many cases by a variety of common names, we have updated the listings on this website to what seems to be the newest nomenclature. Note: While we have tried to be as accurate as possible in the information given, there may be unintended errors. Please advise us if you suspect the information is not accurate.



Acer ginnala Maxim. – Amur Maple - not in Garden

Acer negundo L. – Box Elder

Acer nigrum F.Michx. (Acer saccharum nigrum) – Black Sugar Maple

Acer pensylvanicum L. – Striped Maple

Acer platanoides L. – Norway Maple

Acer rubrum L. – Red Maple

Acer saccharinum L. – Silver Maple

Acer saccharum Marshall – Sugar Maple

Acer spicatum Lam. – Mountain Maple

Achillea millefolium L. – Yarrow

Aconitum napellus L. – Monkshood [No longer extant]

Acorus calamus L. – Sweet Flag - [Historical, not extant]

Actaea racemosa L. var. racemosa - see Cimicifuga racemosa L. – Black Bugbane

Actaea pachypoda Elliot – White Baneberry

Actaea rubra Willd. – Red Baneberry - red berry form

Actaea rubraWilld. – Red Baneberry - white berry form

Adiantum pedatum L. – Northern Maidenhair Fern

Aesculus glabra Willd. – Ohio Buckeye (American Horse-chestnut)

Aethusa cynapium L. – Fool's Parsley - [Not in the Garden]

Agastache foeniculum (Pursh) Kuntze – Blue Giant Hyssop (Giant Hyssop, Anise or Fragrant Giant Hyssop)

Agastache scrophulariifolia (Willd.) Kuntze. – Purple Giant Hyssop

Ageratina altissima L. – White Snakeroot

Agrimonia pubescens Wallr. – Agrimony (Soft Agrimony)

Agrimonia striata Michx. – Roadside Agrimony - not in the Garden

Agrostis gigantea Roth – Red-top Grass

Ajuga reptans L. – Common Bugle [Not in the Garden]

Alisma triviale Pursh [Alisma plantago-aquatica L.] – Northern Water Plantain

Alliaria petiolata (M. Bieb.) Cavara & Grande – Garlic Mustard

Allium canadense L. – Wild Garlic

Allium cernuum Roth. – Nodding Wild Onion

Allium stellatum Fraser ex Ker Gawl. – Wild Onion (Autumn Onion)

Allium tricoccum Sol. – Wild Leek (Ramp)

Alnus incana subsp. rugosa (Du Roi) R. T. Clausen – Speckled Alder

Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. – Ragweed - Common

Ambrosia trifida L. var. trifida [Not in the Garden] – Giant Ragweed

Amelanchier alnifolia (Nutt.) Nutt. ex Roemer – Saskatoon Service-berry

Amelanchier arborea (F. Michx.) Fernald – Downy Serviceberry (Downy Juneberry)

Amelanchier canadensis (L.) Medik. – Shadblow Serviceberry

Amelanchier laevis Wiegand – Allegheny Serviceberry

Amelanchier spicata (Lam.) K.Koch – Running Serviceberry (Creeping Juneberry)

Amphicarpaea bracteata (L.) Fernald. – Hog Peanut

Amorpha canescens Pursh – Leadplant

Amorpha nana Nutt. – Fragrant False Indigo [Historical, not extant]

Amsonia tabernaemontana Walt. – Eastern Bluestar (Willow Amsonia)

Anaphalis margaritacea (L.) Benth. & Hook.f. – Pearly Everlasting [Historical, not extant]

Andropogon gerardii Vitman – Big Bluestem

Anemone acutiloba (DC) G.Lawson – Sharp-lobed Hepatica

Anemone americana (DC) H.Hara – Round-lobed Hepatica

Anemone canadensis L. – Canada Anemone

Anemone cylindrica A.Gray – Thimbleweed

Anemone patens L. var. multifida Pritz. – Pasque Flower

Anemone quinquefolia L. – Wood Anemone

Anemone virginiana L. – Tall Thimbleweed

Anemonella thalictroides - see Thalictrum thalictroides L. – Rue-anemone

Antennaria neglecta Greene – Field Pussytoes

Anthemis cotula L. - Dog Fennel [No longer extant.]

Apios americana Medik. – Groundnut (Wild Bean)

Apocynum androsaemifolium L. – Spreading Dogbane (Common Dogbane)

Apocynum cannabinum L. – Indianhemp (American Dogbane))

Aquilegia canadensis L. – Wild Columbine (Red Columbine)

Arabis laevigata (Muhl. ex Willd.) see - Boechera laevigata (Muhl. ex Willd.) Al-Shehbaz – Smooth Rockcress

Aralia nudicaulis L. – Wild Sarsaparilla

Aralia racemosa L. ssp. racemosa – American Spikenard

Arctium minus Bernh. – Lesser (Common) Burdock

Arctium lappa L. – Great Burdock

Arenaria lateriflora see - Moehringia lateriflora (L.) – Blunt-leaf Sandwort

Arisaema triphyllum (L.) Schott – Jack-in-the-pulpit

Arnoglossum atriplicifolium (L.) H. Rob. – Pale Indian Plantain

Arnoglossum reniforme (Hook.) H. Rob. – Great Indian Plantain

Aronia arbutifolia (L.) Pers. – Red Chokeberry

Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Elliott – Black Chokeberry

Artemisia ludoviciana Nutt. subsp. ludoviciana – White Sage (Prairie Sage, Western Mugwort)

Asarum canadense L. – Canadian Wild Ginger

Asclepias exaltata L. – Poke Milkweed

Asclepias incarnata L. – Swamp Milkweed

Asclepias syriaca L. – Common Milkweed

Asclepias tuberosa L. – Butterfly Milkweed

Asclepias verticillata L. – Whorled Milkweed

Asparagus officinalis L. – Asparagus

Aster azureus see Symphyotrichum oolentangiense – Sky Blue Aster (Azure Aster)

Aster cordifolius -see- Symphyotrichum cordifolium L. – Heart-leaved Aster (Common Blue Wood Aster)

Aster divaricatus see- Eurybia divaricata – White Wood Aster

Aster ericoides see -Symphyotrichum ericoides L. – White Heath Aster (Many-flowered Aster)

Aster laevis see - Symphyotrichum laeve L. – Smooth Blue Aster

Aster lateriflorus see Symphyotrichum lateriflorum L. – Side Flowering Aster (Calico Aster)

Aster macrophyllus -see- Eurybia macrophylla L. – Bigleaf Aster (Large-leaved Aster)

Aster multiflorus -see- Symphyotrichum ericoides L. – White Heath Aster (Many-flowered Aster)

Aster novae-angliae see - Symphyotrichum novae-angliae L. – New England Aster

Aster oblongifolius -see- Symphyotrichum oblongifolium (Nutt.) – Aromatic Aster - [Historical, not extant]

Aster ontarionis -see- Symphyotrichum ontarionis – – Ontario Aster

Aster paniculatus -see- Symphyotrichum lanceolatum – White Panicle Aster

Aster puniceus see - Symphyotrichum puniceum L. – Redstemmed Aster (Purplestem Aster)

Aster sagittifolius see Symphyotrichum urophyllum – White Arrowleaf Aster (Arrow leaved Aster)

Aster sericeus -see- Symphyotrichum sericeum – – Silky Aster (Western Silver Aster)

Aster shortii -see- Symphyotrichum shortii. Short's Aster.

Aster simplex see - Symphyotrichum lanceolatum (Willd.) – White Panicle Aster

Aster umbellatus see- Doellingeria umbellata (Mill.) – Flat-topped Aster

Astragalus canadensis L. – Canadian Milk Vetch

Athyrium filix-femina (L.) Roth – Lady Fern

Athyrium thelypterioides - see Deparia acrostichoides (SW.) M. Kato

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Baptisia australis (L.) R. Br. – False Blue Indigo (Blue Wild Indigo)

Baptisia alba (L) Vent. var. macrophylla – White False Indigo (Wild White Indigo)

Baptisia bracteata Muhl. ex Elliot – Plains Wild Indigo (Cream Wild Indigo)

B. lactea (Raf.) Thieret var lactea -see Baptisia alba (L) Vent. var. macrophylla – Large-leaved Wild Indigo

Baptisia tinctoria (L.) R.Br. – Horseflyweed (Small Yellow Wild Indigo) [historical, not extant]

Barbarea vulgaris R.Br. – Yellow Rocket - [Not in the Garden]

Belamcanda chinensis (L.) DC. – Blackberry Lily

Berteroa incana (L.) DC. – Hoary Alyssum

Betula alleghaniensis Britton – Yellow Birch

Betula lenta L. – Sweet Birch [Historical - not extant]

Betula nigra L. – River Birch

Betula papyrifera Marshall – Paper Birch

Betula pumila L. – Bog Birch

Bidens cernua L. – Nodding Bur Marigold (Beggar-ticks)

Bidens connata Muhl. ex Willd. – Swamp Beggartick (Purple-stem Beggartick)

Bidens frondosa L. – Devil's Beggartick

Blephilia cilata (L.) Benth. – Downy Wood Mint

Blephilia hirsuta (Pursh) Benth. – Hairy Wood Mint (Hoary Wood Mint)

Boechera laevigata (Muhl. ex Willd.) Al-Shehbaz – Smooth Rockcress

Bouteloua curtipendula (Michx.) Torr. – Sideoats Grama (grass)

Bouteloua gracilis (Kunth) Lag. ex Griffiths – Blue Grama [Historical, not extant]

Brassica nigra (L.) W.D.J.Koch – Black Mustard - [Not in the Garden]

Bromus inermis Leyss. – Smooth Brome (grass)

Bromus latiglumis (Shear) Hitchc. – Earlyleaf Brome (grass)

Bromus pubescens L. – Hairy Woodland Brome (grass)

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Cacalia atriplicifolia & Cacalia muhlenbergii -see: Arnoglossum reniforme – Pale & Great Indian Plantain

Calla palustris L. – Wild Calla (Water Arum)

Callirhoe bushii Fernald – Bush's Poppy-mallow [Not in the Garden]

Caltha palustris L. – Marsh Marigold (Cowslip, Yellow Marsh Marigold)

Calystegia sepium (L.) R. Br. – Hedge Bindweed

Camassia scilloides (Raf.) Cory - Wild White Hyacinth

Campanulastrum americanum (L.) Small – Tall Bellflower (American Bellflower)

Campanula americana - see Campanulastrum americanum (L.) Small – Tall Bellflower (American Bellflower)

Campanula aparinoides Pursh – Marsh Bellflower - [Historic, not extant]

Campanula cervicaria L. – Bristly Bellflower (Bristly Bluebells)

Campanula rapunculoides L. – European Bellflower (Rampion Bellflower)

Campanula rotundifolia L. – Harebell

Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik. – Shepherd's Purse [Historical, not extant]

Cardamine diphylla (Michx.) Alph. Wood – Two-leaved Toothwort (Crinkleroot)

Cardamine concatenata (Michx.) Small – Cut-leaved Toothwort

Cardamine pensylvanica Muhl. ex Willd. – Pennsylvania Bitter-cress)

Carex alopecoidea Tuck. – Foxtail Sedge

Carex blanda Dewey – Eastern Wood Sedge

Carex brevior (Dewey) Mack. ex Lunell – Shortbeak Sedge

Carex cephalophora Muhl. ex Willd. – Oval-leaf Sedge (Woodbank Sedge)

Carex comosa Boott – Bristly Sedge

Carex conjuncta Boott - Soft Fox Sedge [Not in the Garden]

Carex cristatella Britton – Crested Sedge (Oval Crested Sedge.

Carex gracillima Schwein. – Graceful Sedge

Carex grayi J. Carey – Gray's Sedge [Not in the Garden]

Carex grisea Wahlenb. – Narrow-leaf Sedge (Gray Sedge)

Carex hirtifolia Mack. – Hairy Wood Sedge

Carex hystericina Muhl. ex Willd. – Bottlebrush Sedge

Carex lacustris Willd. – Lake Sedge

Carex lupulina Willd. – Hop Sedge [Not in the Garden]

Carex pedunculata Muhl. ex Willd. – Long-stalk Sedge

Carex pellita Willd. – Woolly Sedge

Carex pensylvanica Lam. – Pennsylvania Sedge (Yellow Sedge)

Carex radiata (Wahlenb.) Small – Eastern Star Sedge

Carex rosea Schkuhr ex Willd. – Stellate Sedge (Rosy Sedge)

Carex scoparia Schkuhr ex Willd. var. scoparia – Broom Sedge (Lance-fruited Oval Sedge) [Not in the Garden]

Carex sparganioides Muhl. ex Willd. – Bur-reed Sedge

Carex sprengelii Dewey ex Spreng. – Sprengel's Sedge

Carex stipata Muhl. ex Willd. var. stipata – Awl-fruit Sedge

Carex stricta Lam. – Upright Sedge

Carex tenera Dewey – Quill Sedge

Carex typhina Michx. – Cattail Sedge

Carex vulpinoidea Michx. - Fox Sedge [Not in the Garden]

Carpinus caroliniana Walter – Musclewood (Blue Beech)

Carya cordiformis (Wangenh.) K.Koch – Bitternut Hickory

Carya ovata (Mill.) K.Koch – Shagbark Hickory

Cassia fasciculata (see- Chamaecrista fasciculata (Michx.)) – Partridge Pea

Caulophyllum thalictroides (L.) Michx. – Blue Cohosh

Ceanothus americanus L. – New Jersey Tea

Cercis canadensis L. – Eastern Redbud

Celastrus scandens L. – Climbing Bittersweet (American Bittersweet)

Celtis occidentalis L. – Hackberry

Centaurea biebersteinii L. – Spotted Knapweed

Cephalanthus occidentalis L. – Buttonbush

Cerastium fontanum emend Jalas ssp. vulgare – Mouse-ear Chickweed

Chamaecrista fasciculata (Michx.) Greene – Partridge Pea

Chamerion angustifolium (L.) Holub – Fireweed

Chasmanthium latifolium (Michx.) H.O.Yates – Northern Sea Oats [Not in the Garden]

Chelone glabra L. – Turtlehead (White Turtlehead)

Chelone obliqua L. – Red Turtlehead

Chionanthus virginicus L. – Fringe Tree

Chrysanthemum leucanthemum - see- Leucanthemum vulgare Lam – Oxeye Daisy

Cichorium intybus L. – Chicory

Cicuta bulbifera L. – Bulblet Water Hemlock - [Not in the Garden]

Cicuta maculata L. – Water Hemlock - [Historical, not extant]

Cimicifuga racemosa L. – Black Bugbane (Bugbane, Black Cohosh)

Circaea lutetiana ssp. canadensis (L.) Asch. & Magnus – Enchanter's Nightshade (Broadleaf Enchanter's Nightshade)

Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. – Canada Thistle

Cirsium discolor (Muhl. ex Willd.) Spreng. – Field Thistle

Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten. – Bull Thistle [not in Garden]

Cirsium - Comparison sheet - all MN Thistles –  

Cladrastis kentukea (Dum. Cours.) Rudd – Yellowwood

Claytonia virginica L. – Virginia Spring Beauty

Clematis virginiana L. – Virgin's Bower

Comandra umbellata (L.) Nutt. – Bastard Toadflax

Comarum palustre L. – Purple Marshlocks (Marsh Cinquefoil) [Historical - not extant]

Comptonia peregrina (L.) J.M. Coult – Sweet Fern

Convallaria majalis L. var. magalis – European Lily-of-the-Valley

Convolvulus arvensis L. – Field Bindweed - [Historical, not extant]

Convolvulus sepium see - Calystegia sepium (L.) R. Br. ssp. angulata Brummitt – Hedge Bindweed (Wild Morning Glory)

Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist – Canadian Horseweed (Canada Fleabane)

Coreopsis palmata Nutt. – Stiff Coreopsis (Bird's Foot Coreopsis)

Cornus alternifolia L. f. – Pagoda Dogwood (Alternate-leaf Dogwood)

Cornus obliqua Raf. – Pale Dogwood

Cornus racemosa Lam. – Gray Dogwood

Cornus sericea L. – Red Osier Dogwood

Coronilla varia L. – Crown Vetch - [Not in the Garden]

Corydalis sempervirens (L.) Pers. – Pale Corydalis (historical Garden plant - not extant)

Corydalis solida (L.) Clairv. – Fumewort (Spring Fumewort)

Corylus americana Walter – American Hazelnut

Corylus cornuta Marshall subsp. cornuta – Beaked Hazelnut - [Historical, not extant]

Crataegus chrysocarpa Ashe – Hawthorn (Red Hawthorn)

Crepis tectorum L. – Narrowleaf Hawksbeard

Cuscuta gronovii Willd. ex. Schult – Dodder - Common

Cypripedium parviflorum Salisb. var. makasin – Yellow Lady's-slipper (Greater) [Historical, not extant]

Cypripedium parviflorum Salisb. var. pubescens (Willd.) Knight – Yellow Lady's-slipper (Greater)

Cypripedium reginae Walter – Showy Lady's-slipper

Cystopteris bulbifera (L.) Bernhardi----Bulblet Fern

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Dalea candida Michx. ex Willd – White Prairie Clover

Dalea purpurea Vent. – Purple Prairie Clover

Dasiphora fruticosa (L.) Rydb. – Shrubby Conquefoil [Historical, not extant]

Daucus carota L. - Queen Anne's Lace [Historical - not extant]

Delphinium exaltatum Aiton – Tall Larkspur - not in Garden

Dentaria diphylla- see Cardamine diphylla – Two-leaved Toothwort

Dentaria laciniata see - Cardamine concatenata (Michx.) – Cut-leaved Toothwort

Deparia acrostichoides (SW.) M. Kato – Silvery False Spleenwort

Desmodium canadense (L.) DC. – Showy Tick-trefoil (Canada Tick-trefoil)

Desmodium glutinosum (Muhl. ex Willd.) – Pointed-leaved Tick-trefoil

Dicentra cucullaria (L.) Bernh. – Dutchman's Breeches

Dichanthelium acuminatum (Sw.) Gould & C.A. Clark var. fasciculatum (Torr.) Freckmann – Western Panicgrass

Dichanthelium oligosanthes (Schult.) Gould var. scribnerianum (Nash) Gould – Panicgrass (Scribner's Panicgrass)

Diervilla lonicera Mill. – Northern Bush Honeysuckle

Digitalis lanata Ehrh. – Grecian Foxglove

Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop. – Crabgrass (Hairy Crabgrass)

Dioscorea villosa L. – Wild Yamroot

Dirca palustris L. – Eastern Leatherwood

Dodecatheon meadia L. ssp. meadia – Shooting Star (Pride of Ohio)

Doellingeria umbellata (Mill.) var. pubens – Flat-topped Aster

Dryopteris carthusiana (Vill.) H.P.Fuchs – Spinulose Wood Fern

Dryopteris cristata (L.) A.Gray – Crested Wood Fern

Dryopteris filix-mas (L.) Schott – Male Fern

Dryopteris goldiana (Hook. ex Goldie) A.Gray – Goldie's Wood Fern

Dryopteris marginalis (L.) A.Gray – Marginal Wood Fern

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Echinacea angustifolia DC. – Narrow-leaved Coneflower - [Historical, not extant]

Echinacea pallida (Nutt.) Nutt. – Pale Purple Coneflower

Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench – Eastern Purple Coneflower

Echinocystis lobata (Michx.) Torr. & A. Gray – Wild Cucumber (Historical - not extant)

Elymus canadensis L. – Canada Wild-rye

Elymus hystrix L. var. hystrix – Eastern Bottlebrush Grass

Elymus repens (L.) Gould – Quackgrass

Elymus sp. – Wild Rye

Enemion biternatum Raf. – False Rue Anemone (Eastern False Rue Anemone)

Epilobium angustifolium L. – Fireweed

Epilobium ciliatum Raf. ssp. glandulosum (Lehm.) - See Epilobium coloratum – Northern Willowherb (American Willowherb)

Epilobium coloratum Biehler – Willowherb

Epipactis helleborine (L.) Crantz – Helleborine (Broad-leaved Helleborine)

Equisetum arvense L. – Field Horsetail [Historical - not extant]

Equisetum fluviatile L. – Water Horsetail

Erechtites hieraciifolia (L.) Raf ex DC – Burnweed (Fireweed)

Erigeron annuus (L.) Pers. – Eastern or Annual Daisy Fleabane

Erigeron canadensis - see Conyza canadensis – Canadian Horseweed

Erigeron philadelphicus L. var. philadelphicus – Philadelphia Fleabane (Common Fleabane)

Erigeron strigosus Muhl. ex Willd. – Lesser Daisy Fleabane (Prairie Fleabane)

Eryngium yuccifolium Michx. – Rattlesnake-master

Erythronium albidum Nutt. – White Trout Lily (White Fawn Lily)

Erythronium americanum Ker Gawl. – Yellow Trout Lily (Dogtooth Violet)

Erythronium propullans A. Gray – Minnesota Dwarf Trout Lily

Euonymus atropurpurea Jacq. var. atropurpurea – Eastern Wahoo

Euonymus obovata Nutt. – Running Strawberry Bush

Eupatorium maculatum -See Eutrochium maculatum (L.) E.E.Lamont – Spotted Joe-Pye Weed

Eupatorium purpureum L. - See -Eutrochium purpureum (L.) E.E.Lamont – Sweet Scented Joe-Pye Weed

Eupatorium perfoliatum L. – Boneset

Eupatorium rugosum see Ageratina altissima L. – White Snakeroot

Euphorbia corollata L. – Flowering Spurge

Euphorbia cyathophora Murray – Wild Poinsettia

Euphorbia esula L. – Leafy Spurge

Euthamia graminifolia (L.) Nutt. – Grass-leaved Goldenrod

Eutrochium maculatum (L.) E.E.Lamont – Spotted Joe-Pye Weed

Eutrochium purpureum (L.) E.E.Lamont – Sweet-scented Joe-Pye Weed

Eurybia divaricata (L.) G. L. Nesom – White Wood Aster

Eurybia macrophylla (L.) Cass. – Bigleaf Aster (Large-leaved Aster)

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Fagus grandifolia Ehrh. – American Beech

Fallopia cilinodis (Michx.) Holub. – Fringed Black Bindweed

Fallopia convolvulus (L.) A.Löve – Black Bindweed [Not in the Garden]

Fallopia japonica (Houtt.) Ronse Decraene var. japonica – Japanese Knotweed

Filipendula rubra (Hill) – Queen of the Prairie

Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim. – Queen of the Meadow

Fragaria vesca L. – Woodland Strawberry

Fragaria virginiana Duchesne – Common Strawberry (Virginia Strawberry)

Frangula alnus Mill. [Rhamnus frangula L.] – Glossy Buckthorn

Fraxinus americana L. – White Ash [Historical - not extant]

Fraxinus nigra Marshall – Black Ash

Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall – Green Ash

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Galax urceolata (Poir.) Brummitt – Galax (Beetleweed)

Galinsoga quadriradiata Ruiz & Pav. – Shaggy Soldier [Not in the Garden]

Galium aparine L. – Cleavers (Stickywilly)

Galium asprellum Michx. – Rough Bedstraw

Galium boreale L. – Northern Bedstraw

Galium concinnum Torr. & A. Gray – Shining Bedstraw

Galium trifidum L. – Threepetal Bedstraw

Galium triflorum Michx. – Fragrant Bedstraw (Sweet-scented Bedstraw)

Gaultheria procumbens L. – Wintergreen (Eastern Teaberry)

Gaura biennis L. – Biennial Gaura

Gentiana alba Muhl. ex Nutt – Plain Gentian, (Cream, Yellow, Pale Gentian)

Gentiana clausa Raf. and Gentiana andrewsii Griseb. – Bottle Gentian (Closed Gentian)

Gentiana flavida A.Gray – Plain Gentian, (Cream, Yellow, Pale Gentian)

Gentiana puberulenta J. S. Pringle – Downy Gentian

Gentianella quinquefolia (L.) Small - Stiff Gentian (Agueweed) [Historical - not extant.]

Geranium maculatum L. – Wild Geranium (Spotted Geranium)

Geum aleppicum Jacq. – Yellow Avens

Geum canadense Jacq. – White Avens

Geum triflorum Pursh – Prairie Smoke (Old Man's Whiskers)

Glechoma hederacea L. – Creeping Charlie (Ground Ivy)

Glyceria grandis S. Watson – American Mannagrass

Glyceria striata (Lam.) Hitchc. – Fowl Mannagrass

Grindelia squarrosa (Pursh) Dunal – Curlycup Gumweed - [Historical, not extant]

Gymnocladus dioicus (L.) K. Koch – Kentucky Coffeetree

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Habenaria hyperborea - see - Platanthera aquilonis Sheviak – Northern Green Orchid [Historical, not extant]

Habenaria psychodes - see Platanthera psycodes (L.) Lindl. – Lesser Purple Fringed Orchid [Historical, not extant]

Hackelia virginiana (L.) I. M. Johnst. – Virginia Stickseed (Beggar's Lice)

Hamamelis virginiana L. – Witch Hazel

Hedyotis longifolia (Gaertn.) Hook – Long-leaved Bluet [Historical, not extant]

Helenium autumnale L. – Sneezeweed - [Historical, not extant]

Helianthus giganteus L. – Giant Sunflower (Tall Sunflower)

Helianthus hirsutus Raf. – Stiff-haired Sunflower (Hairy Sunflower)

Helianthus occidentalis Riddell – Western Sunflower [Historical, not extant]

Helianthus pauciflorus Nutt. – Stiff Sunflower

Helianthus strumosus L. – Paleleaf Woodland Sunflower

Helianthus tuberosus L. – Jerusalem Artichoke

Helictotrichon sempervirens (Vill.) Pilg. – Blue Oatgrass

Heliopsis helianthoides (L) Sweet var. scraba – Smooth Oxeye (Yellow Oxeye)

Hemerocallis lilioasphodelus L. – Yellow Day Lily

Hemerocallis fulva L. – Orange Day Lily

Hepatica nobilis Schreb. var. acuta (Pursh) Steyerm. see - Anemone acutiloba – Sharp-lobed Hepatica

Hepatica nobilis Schreb. var. obtusa (Pursh) Steyerm. see - Anemone americana – Round-lobed Hepatica

Heracleum maximum Bartram – Cow Parsnip

Hesperis matronalis L. – Dame's Rocket (Sweet Rocket) (Dame's Violet)

Hesperostipa spartea (Trin.) Barkworth – Porcupine Grass

Heterotheca villosa (Pursh) Shinners – Hairy Golden-aster [Historical, not extant]

Heuchera americana L. var. hirsuticalis – American Alumroot

Hieracium aurantiacum L. – Orange Hawkweed

Hieracium umbellatum L. – Rough Hawkweed (Narrow-leaf or Canada Hawkweed)

Hydrastis canadensis L. – Goldenseal

Hydrophyllum virginianum L. – Virginia Waterleaf (Eastern Waterleaf)

Hylotelephium telephium (L.) H. Ohba. – Live Forever (Witch's Moneybags)

Hypericum pyramidatum Aiton – Great St. Johnswort

Hypericum perforatum L. – Common St. Johnswort

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Ilex verticillata (L.) A. Gray – Winterberry (Black Alder)

Impatiens capensis Meerb. (I. biflora) – Spotted Touch-me-not (Jewelweed)

Impatiens pallida Nutt. – Pale Touch-me-not (Pale Jewelweed)

Inula helenium L. – Elecampane - [Historical, not extant]

Iris cristata Aiton – Dwarf Crested Iris [Historical - not extant]

Iris pseudacorus L. – Yellow Flag Iris (Pale Yellow Iris)

Iris versicolor L. – Blue Flag Iris

Isopyrum biternatum - see Enemion biternatum Raf. – False Rue Anemone

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Jeffersonia diphylla (L.) Pers. – Twinleaf

Juglans cinerea L. – Butternut

Juglans nigra L. – Black Walnut

Juniperus virginiana L. var. virginiana L. – Eastern Redcedar

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Kalmia latifolia L. – Mountain Laurel

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Lactuca biennis (Moench) Fernald – Tall Blue Lettuce [not in the Garden]

Lactuca canadensis L. – Wild Lettuce

Lactuca serriola L. – Prickly Lettuce

Laportea canadensis (L.) Weddell – Wood Nettle (Canadian Wood Nettle)

Larix laricina (Du Roi) K. Koch – Tamarack (Larch)

Lathyrus latifolius L. – Everlasting Pea - [Not in the Garden]

Lathyrus ochroleucus Hook. – Cream Pea

Lathyrus palustris L. – Marsh Pea [not in the Garden]

Lathyrus venosus Muhl. ex Willd. – Veiny Pea, (Wild Pea), (Veiny Vetchling)

Leersia oryzoides (L.) Sw. – Rice Cutgrass

Leersia virginica Willd. – Whitegrass (White Cutgrass)

Lemna minor L. – Lesser Duckweed

Leonurus cardiaca L. – Motherwort

Lepidium densiflorum Schrad. – Pepper Grass

Lespedeza capitata Michx. – Round-headed Bushclover

Leucanthemum vulgare Lam – Oxeye Daisy

Liatris aspera Michx. – Rough Blazing Star

Liatris cylindracea Michx. – Ontario Blazing Star (Cylindrical Blazing Star)

Liatris ligulistylis (A. Nels) K. Schum. – Large-headed Blazing Star (Rocky Mountain Blazing Star)

Liatris pilosa (Aiton) Willd. – Shaggy Blazing Star

Liatris punctata Hook. – Dotted Blazing Star. [Historical - not extant]

Liatris pycnostachya Michx. – Prairie Blazing Star

Liatris scariosa (L.) Willd. var. novae-angliae Lunell – Northern Blazing Star (New England Blazing Star)

Liatris spicata (L.) Willd. – Dense Blazing Star

Liatris squarrosa (L.) Michx. – Scaly Blazing Star [Historical - not extant]

Lilium canadense L. – Canada Lily (Meadow Lily) (Wild Yellow Lily)

Lilium superbum L. and Lilium michiganense L. – Turk's-cap Lily

Linaria vulgaris Mill. – Butter and Eggs

Lobelia cardinalis L. – Cardinal Flower

Lobelia siphilitica L. – Great Blue Lobelia (Blue Cardinal Flower)

Lobelia spicata Lam. - Pale-spike Lobelia [Historical - not extant]

Lonicera dioica L. – Climbing Honeysuckle (Limber Honeysuckle)

Lonicera tatarica L. – Tatarian Honeysuckle

Lotus corniculatus L. – Bird's-foot Trefoil - [Not in the Garden]

Lupinus perennis L. – Wild Lupine

Lychnis alba - see Silene latifolia Poir. – White Campion

Lychnis chalcedonica L. – Maltese Cross (Scarlet Lychnis). [Historical - not extant]

Lycopus americanus Muhl. ex W.P.C. Barton – Water Horehound

Lycopus uniflorus Michx. – Northern Bugleweed

Lysimachia ciliata L. – Fringed Loosestrife

Lysimachia nummularia L. – Moneywort (Creeping Jenny)

Lysimachia quadriflora Sims – Prairie Loosestrife [not in the Garden]

Lysimachia quadrifolia L. – Whorled Loosestrife

Lysimachia terrestis (L.) B.S.P. – Swamp Candles (Yellow Loosestrife)

Lysimachia thyrsiflora L. – Tufted Loosestrife (Swamp Loosestrife)

Lysimachia vulgaris L. – Garden Loosestrife

Lythrum salicaria L. – Purple Loosestrife

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Maianthemum canadense Desf. – Canadian Mayflower (False Lily-of-the-Valley) [Historical Garden Plant - not extant]

Maianthemum racemosum (L.) Link – False Solomon's seal (Feathery False Lily of the Valley)

Maianthemum stellatum (L.) Link – Starry False Solomon's Seal

Matteuccia struthiopteris (L.) Todaro – Ostrich Fern

Medicago lupulina L. – Black Medic

Melilotus alba Medikus – White Sweet Clover [Historical Garden Plant - not extant]

Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam. – Yellow Sweet Clover [Historical Garden Plant - not extant]

Menispermum canadense L. – Canada Moonseed (Common Moonseed)

Mertensia virginica (L.) Pers ex Link – Virginia Bluebells

Mentha x piperita L. (Pro sp.) [aquatica-spicata] – Peppermint

Mentha arvensis L. var. canadensis – Wild Mint

Micranthes pensylvanica (L.) Haw. – Eastern Swamp Saxifrage

Mimulus ringens L. var. ringens - Monkey Flower

Mirabilis nyctaginea (Michx.) MacMill. – Heart-leaved Four O'clock (Wild Four O'clock)

Mitchella repens L. – Partridge Berry

Mitella diphylla L. – Twoleaf Mitrewort (Bishop's Cap)

Moehringia lateriflora (L.) Fenzl – Blunt-leaved Sandwort

Monarda fistulosa L. – Wild Bergamot

Monarda media Willd. – Purple Bergamot

Monarda punctata L. – Spotted Bee-balm (Horsemint). [Historical Garden Plant - not extant]

Monotropa uniflora L. – Indian Pipe

Muhlenbergia mexicana (L.) Trin. – Mexican Muhly (Satin Gras)

Muhlenbergia racemosa (Michx.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb. – Marsh Grass (Green Muhly)

Myosotis scorpioides L. – True Forget-me-not

Myrrhis odorata (L.) Scop. – Sweet cicely [Not in the Garden]

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Napaea dioica L. – Glade Mallow

Nepeta cataria L. – Catnip - [Historical, not extant]

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Oenothera biennis L. – Common Evening Primrose

Oenothera gaura W.L.Wagner & Hoch - see Gaura biennis L. – Biennial Gaura

Oenothera pilosella Raf. – Prairie Sundrops (Meadow Evening Primrose)

Oligoneuron riddellii - see Solidago riddellii Frank ex Riddell – Riddell's Goldenrod

Oligoneuron rigidum (L.) Small var. rigidum -see Solidago rigida L. – Stiff Goldenrod

Onoclea sensibilis L. – Sensitive Fern

Onoclea struthiopteris - see Matteuccia struthiopteris - Ostrich Fern

Osmorhiza claytonii (Michx.) C.B.Clarke – Bland Sweet Cicely

Osmorhiza longistylis (Torr.) DC. – Aniseroot (Smooth Sweet Cicely)

Osmunda cinnamomea L. – Cinnamon Fern

Osmunda claytoniana L. – Interrupted Fern

Osmunda regalis L. – Royal Fern

Osmundastrum cinnamomeum (L.) C. Presl - see Osmunda cinnamomea – Cinnamon Fern

Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) k Koch – Hophornbeam (Ironwood)

Oxalis stricta L. – Common Yellow Oxalis (Yellow Wood Sorrel)

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Packera aurea (L.) A. Löve & D. Löve – Golden Ragwort

Packera plattensis (Nutt.) W.A.Weber & A.Löve – Prairie Ragwort

Panicum virgatum L. – Switch Grass

Parthenium integrifolium L. – Wild Quinine (American Feverfew)

Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch. – Virginia Creeper

Parthenocissus vitacea (Knerr) Hitchc. – Grape Woodbine

Paspalum setaceum Michx. – Paspalum (Hairy Bead Grass)

Pediomelum argophyllum (Pursh) J. Grimes – Silvery Scurf Pea

Penstemon digitalis Nutt. ex Sims – Foxglove Beardtongue (Talus Slope Penstemon)

Penstemon grandiflorus Nutt. – Showy Beardtongue (Large Beardtongue)

Penstemon pallidus Small – Pale Beardtongue - [Not in the Garden]

Persicaria amphibia (L.) Gray- Water Smartweed - [Not in the Garden]

Persicaria lapathifolia (L.) Gray - Pale Smartweed. [Historical - not extant]

Persicaria maculosa Gray – Spotted Lady's-thumb - [Not in the Garden]

Persicaria punctata (Elliott) Small – Dotted Smartweed

Persicaria sagittata (L.) H. Gross – Arrow-leaved Tearthumb

Petalostemon candidum- see Dalea candida – White Prairie Clover

Petalostemon purpureum - see Dalea purpurea – Purple Prairie Clover

Phalaris arundinacea L. – Reed Canary Grass

Philadelphus sp. – Mock Orange

Phleum pratense L. – Timothy

Phlox divaricata L. – Wild Blue Phlox

Phlox maculata L. – Wild Sweet William -[Historical, not extant]

Phlox paniculata L. – Garden Phlox

Phlox pilosa L. – Downy Phlox (Prairie Phlox)

Photinia melanocarpa - see Aronia melanocarpa Michx. – Black Chokeberry

Photinia pyrifolia Lam.- see Aronia arbutifolia – Red Chokeberry

Phryma leptostachya L. – Lopseed (American Lopseed)

Physalis heterophylla Nees – Clammy Ground Cherry

Physalis virginiana Mill. - – Virginia Ground Cherry [Historical, not extant]

Physocarpus opulifolius (L.) Maxim. – Ninebark (Common Ninebark)

Physostegia virginiana (L.) Benth. – Obedient Plant (False Dragonhead)

Picea abies (L.) Karst. – Norway Spruce

Picea glauca (Moench) Voss – White Spruce

Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P. – Black Spruce

Pilea pumila (L.) A.Gray – Canadian Clearweed

Pinus banksiana Lamb. – Jack Pine [Historical, not extant]

Pinus resinosa Aiton. – Red Pine (Norway Pine)

Pinus strobus L. – Eastern White Pine

Plantago major L. – Common Plantain

Platanthera aquilonis Sheviak – Northern Green Orchid ([Historical, not extant]

Platanthera psycodes (L.) Lindl. – Lesser Purple Fringed Orchid [Historical, not extant]

Poa Compressa L. – Canada Bluegrass

Poa pratensis L. – Kentucky Bluegrass

Podophyllum peltatum L. – May Apple

Polemonium reptans L. – Spreading Jacob's-ladder (Greek Valerian)

Polygonatum biflorum (Walter) Elliot – Great Solomon's Seal (Smooth Solomon's Seal)

Polygonum amphibium L. - see Persicaria amphibia – Water Smartweed

Polygonum cilinode Michx. – see Fallopia cilinodis - Fringed Black Bindweed

Polygonum convolvulus see - Fallopia convolvulus – Black Bindweed

Polygonum cuspidatum - see Fallopia japonica – Japanese Knotweed

Polygonum persicaria see - Persicaria maculosa – Spotted Lady's-thumb

Polygonum punctatum see - Persicaria punctata – Dotted Smartweed

Polygonum sagittatum see- Persicaria sagittata – Arrow-leaved Tearthumb

Polystichum acrostichoides (Michx.) Schott – Christmas Fern

Populus alba L. - White Poplar [Not in the Garden]

Populus balsamifera L. subsp. balsamifera – Balm of Gilead (Balsam Poplar)

Populus deltoides Bartram ex Marshall, subsp. monilifera – Plains Cottonwood

Populus grandidentata Michx. – Bigtooth Aspen

Populus tremuloides Michx. – Quaking Aspen

Potentilla argentea L. – Silver Cinquefoil

Potentilla arguta Pursh var. arguta – Prairie Cinquefoil - [Historical, not extant]

Potentilla norvegica L. - [Historical, not extant] – Rough Cinquefoil

Potentilla recta L. – Rough Fruited Cinquefoil

Potentilla simplex Michx. – Common Cinquefoil

Prenanthes alba L. – White Rattlesnake Root

Prunella vulgaris L. subsp. lanceolata. – Heal-all (Self Heal)

Prunella vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris – Lawn Prunella [Not in the Garden]

Prunus americana Marsh. – Wild Plum (American Plum)

Prunus pensylvanica L.f. – Pin Cherry

Prunus pumila L. var. besseyi (L.H. Bailey) Gleason – Western Sand Cherry - [Historical, not extant]

Prunus serotina Ehrh. var. serotina – Black Cherry - tree

Prunus virginiana L. var. virginiana – Chokecherry

Ptelea trifoliata L. – Hoptree

Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn var. latiusculum – Bracken Fern

Pulsatilla nuttalliana (DC.) Spreng. – Pasque Flower - [Historical, not extant]

Pycnanthemum virginianum (L.) T. Dur. & B.D.Jackson ex B.L. Robins & Fernald. – Virginia Mountain Mint

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Quercus alba L. – White Oak

Quercus bicolor Willd. – Swamp White Oak

Quercus coccinea Münchh. – Scarlet Oak

Quercus ellipsoidalis E. J. Hill – Northern Pin Oak

Quercus macrocarpa Michx. – Bur Oak

Quercus muehlenbergii Engelm. – Chinkapin Oak [Historical - not extant]

Quercus palustris Münchh. – Pin Oak [Historical - not extant]

Quercus rubra L. – Northern Red Oak

Quercus velutina Lam. – Black Oak

Oak Leaf Comparison Sheet

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Ranunculus abortivus L. – Kidneyleaf Buttercup (Littleleaf Buttercup)

Ranunculus acris L. – Tall Buttercup

Ranunculus hispidus Michx. var nitidus – Swamp Buttercup (Bristly Buttercup, Rough Buttercup)

Ranunculus pensylvanicus L.f. – Bristly Buttercup (Bristly Crowfoot, Pennsylvania Buttercup) - [Not in the Garden]

Ranunculus recurvatus Poir. – Hooked Crowfoot (Blisterwort)

Ranunculus sceleratus L. – Cursed Crowfoot - [Not in the Garden]

Ranunculus septentrionalis - see R. hispidus

Ratibida columnifera (Nutt.) Woot. & Standl. – Long-headed Coneflower (Prairie Coneflower)

Ratibida pinnata (Vent.) Barnhart – Gray-headed Coneflower

Rhamnus cathartica L. – Common Buckthorn

Rhamnus frangula L. (Frangula alnus Mill.) – Glossy Buckthorn

Rhododendron calendulaceum (Michx.) Torr. – Flame Azalea

Rhus aromatica Aiton – Fragrant Sumac

Rhus glabra L. – Smooth Sumac

Rhus hirta (L.) Sudworth [Rhus typhina L. ] – Staghorn Sumac

Ribes americanum Mill. – American Black Currant (Wild Black Currant)

Ribes cynosbati L. – Eastern Prickly Gooseberry

Ribes missouriense Nutt. – Missouri Gooseberry

Ribes rubrum L. – Garden Currant

Robinia pseudoacacia L. – Black Locust

Rosa acicularlis Lindl. – Prickly Rose

Rosa arkansana Porter – Prairie Rose (Arkansas Rose)

Rosa blanda Aiton – Smooth Rose

Rosa carolina L. – Carolina Rose (Pasture Rose)

Rosa palustris Marshall – Swamp Rose [not in Garden]

Rosa setigera Michx. – Climbing Rose (Illinois Rose)

Rosa woodsii Lindl. – Woods' Rose

Rubus allegheniensis Porter – Allegheny Blackberry

Rubus flagellaris Willd. – Dewberry (Northern Dewberry)

Rubus idaeus L. var. strigosus (Michx.) Focke – Wild Red Raspberry

Rubus occidentalis L. – Black Raspberry

Rubus odoratus L. – Purple Flowering Raspberry - [Historical, not extant]

Rubus parviflorus Nutt. – Thimbleberry (Flowering Raspberry)

Rubus pubescens Raf. – Dwarf Red Blackberry

Rubus setosus Big. (Rubus semisetosus Blanch.) – Bristly or Swamp Blackberry

Rudbeckia fulgida Aiton – Orange Coneflower - [Not in the Garden]

Rudbeckia hirta L. – Black-eyed Susan

Rudbeckia laciniata L. – Green-headed Coneflower

Rudbeckia subtomentosa Pursh – Sweet Black-eyed Susan - [Historical - not extant]

Rudbeckia triloba L. – Thin-leaved Coneflower (Brown-eyed Susan)

Ruellia humilis Nutt. – Fringeleaf Wild Petunia

Rumex crispus L. – Curly Dock

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Sagittaria latifolia Willd. – Broadleaf Arrowhead

Salix discolor Muhl. – Pussy Willow

Salix nigra Marshall – Black Willow - [Historical, not extant]

Sambucus nigra L. ssp. canadensis (L.) R. Bolli – Canada Elderberry (American Black Elderberry)

Sambucus racemosa L. – Red Elderberry ( Red-berried Elder)

Sanguinaria canadensis L. – Bloodroot

Saponaria officinalis L. – Bouncing Bet (Soapwort)

Saxifraga pensylvanica L. see -Micranthes pensylvanica (L.) Haw. – Eastern Swamp Saxifrage

Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash var. scoparium – Little Bluestem

Scilla siberica Haw. – Blue Squill (Siberian Squill)

Scirpus atrovirens Willd. – Dark Green Bulrush

Scrophularia lanceolata Pursh. – Lanceleaf Figwort

Sedum telephium - see Hylotelephium telephium L. – Live Forever

Senecio aureus see Packera aurea L. – Golden Ragwort

Senna hebecarpa (Fernald) Irwin & Barneby – Wild Senna

Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult. ssp. pumila – Yellow Foxtail

Shepherdia Argentea (Pursh) Nutt. – Silver Buffaloberry - [Historical, not extant]

Silene chalcedonica (L.) E.H.L.Krause – Maltese Cross (Scarlet Lychnis) [Historical, not extant]

Silene latifolia Poir. – White Campion - [Historical, not extant]

Silene noctiflora L. – Night-flowering Catchfly - [Historical, not extant]

Silene regia Sims – Royal Catchfly

Silene stellata (L.) W.T. Aiton – Starry Campion (Widow's Frill) [Historical, not extant]

Silphium integrifolium Michx. – Wholeleaf Rosinweed (Rosin-weed)

Silphium laciniatum L. – Compass Plant

Silphium perfoliatum L. – Cup Plant

Silphium terebinthinaceum Jacq. – Prairie Dock (Prairie Rosinweed)

Sisyrinchium angustifolium Mill. – Narrowleaf Blue-eyed Grass

Smilacina racemosa see Maianthemum racemosum (L.) Link ssp. racemosum – False Solomon's-seal

Smilax ecirrhata S. Watson – Upright Carrion Flower (Erect Carrion Flower)

Smilax lasioneura L. – Common Carrion Flower (BlueRidge Carrion Flower)

Smilax rotundifolia L. – Roundleaf Greenbrier- [Historical, not extant]

Smilax tamnoides L. – Catbrier (Bristly Greenbrier)

Solanum dulcamara L. – Climbing Nightshade (Bittersweet Nightshade)

Solanum nigrum -see - Solanum ptycanthemum Dunal. – Black Nightshade

Solanum ptycanthemum Dunal. - West Indian Black Nightshade

Solidago altissima L. – Late (Tall) Goldenrod

Solidago canadensis (L.) var. scabra Torr. & Gray - see Solidago altissima – Canada Goldenrod

Solidago flexicaulis L. – Zigzag Goldenrod

Solidago gigantea Aiton – Giant Goldenrod

Solidago graminifolia L. see Euthamia graminifolia (L.) Nutt. var. graminifolia – Grass-leaved Goldenrod

Solidago nemoralis Aiton. – Gray Goldenrod (Old Field Goldenrod)

Solidago riddellii Frank ex Riddell – Riddell's Goldenrod

Solidago rigida L. [Oligoneuron rigidum L.] – Stiff Goldenrod

Solidago speciosa Nutt. – Showy Goldenrod

Solidago ulmifolia Muhl. ex Willd. – Elm-leaved Goldenrod

Sonchus arvensis L. – Field Sow Thistle - [Historical, not extant]

Sonchus asper (L.) Hill – Spiny Sow Thistle [Historical, not extant]

Sorbus aucuparia L. – European Mountain Ash - [Not in Garden]

Sorbus decora (Sarg.) C.K.Schneid. – Showy Mountain Ash

Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash – Indiangrass

Sparganium eurycarpum Engelm. – Broadleaf Burweed

Spartina pectinata Bosc. ex Link. – Prairie Cordgrass

Spiraea alba DuRoi. – Meadowsweet (Narrowleaf Meadowsweet)

Sporobolus heterolepis (A. Gray) A. Gray – Prairie Dropseed

Stachys palustris L. – Marsh Hedgenettle - [Historical, not extant]

Staphylea trifolia L. – American Bladdernut

Stellaria longifolia Muhl. ex Willd. – Long-leaved Chickweed (Long-leaved Stichwort)

Stellaria media (L.) Vill. - Common Chickweed - [Not in the Garden]

Strophostyles helvola (L.) Elliott – Amberique Bean (Trailing Wild Bean)

Stylophorum diphyllum (Michx.) Nutt. – Wood Poppy

Symphoricarpos albus (L.) Blake – Snowberry

Symphoricarpos occidentalis Hook. – Wolfberry

Symphoricarpos orbiculatus Moench – Coralberry

Symphyotrichum cordifolium (L.) G.L. Nesom – Heart-leaved Aster (Common Blue Wood Aster)

Symphyotrichum ericoides (L.) G. L. Nesom – White Heath Aster (Many-flowered Aster)

Symphyotrichum laeve var. laeve (L.) A. Löve & D. Löve – Smooth Blue Aster

Symphyotrichum lanceolatum var. lanceolatum (Willd.) Nesom – White Panicle Aster

Symphyotrichum lateriflorum (L.) A. Love & D. Love – Side-flowering Aster (Calico Aster)

Symphyotrichum novae-angliae (L.) Nesom – New England Aster

Symphyotrichum oblongifolium (Nutt.) G.L.Nesom – Aromatic Aster - [Historical, not extant]

Symphyotrichum oolentangiense (Riddell) G.L. Nesom var. oolentangiense – Sky Blue Aster (Azure Aster)

Symphyotrichum ontarionis (Wiegand) G.L. Nesom – Ontario Aster

Symphyotrichum puniceum (L.) A. Löve & D. Löve var. puniceum – Redstemmed Aster & Purplestem Aster

Symphyotrichum sericeum (Vent.) G.L. Nesom – Silky Aster (Western Silver Aster)

Symphyotrichum shortii (Lindl.) G.L.Nesom. – Short's Aster

Symphyotrichum urophyllum (Lindl.) G.L. Nesom – White Arrowleaf Aster

Symphytum officinale L. - not extant – Comfrey

Symplocarpus foetidus (L.) Salisb. ex W.P.C. Barton – Skunk Cabbage

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Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Sch.Bip. – Feverfew - [Not in the Garden]

Tanacetum vulgare L. - not extant – Tansy

Taraxacum officinale F.H.Wigg. – Dandelion

Taxus canadensis Marshall – American Yew

Teucrium canadense L. – Canada Germander (American Germander, Wood Sage)

Thalictrum dioicum L. – Early Meadow Rue

Thalictrum dasycarpum Fisch & Ave-Lall. – Tall Meadow Rue (Purple Meadow Rue)

Thalictrum thalictroides (L.) Eames & B. Boivin – Rue Anemone

Thlaspi arvense L. – Field Pennycress - [Not in the Garden]

Thuja occidentalis L. – Northern White Cedar

Tiarella cordifolia L. – Foamflower (Heartleaf Foamflower)

Tilia americana L. – American Basswood

Torilis japonica (Houtt.) DC. – Japanese Hedge Parsley - [Not in the Garden]

Toxicodendron rydbergii (Small ex Rydb.) Greene – Western Poison Ivy

Tradescantia bracteata Small – Spiderwort (Bracted Spiderwort)

Tradescantia ohiensis Raf. – Bluejacket (Ohio Spiderwort)

Tragopogon dubius Scop. – Yellow Salsify

Tragopogon pratensis L. [Old - Tragopogon lamottei Rouy] – Meadow Goatsbeard (Yellow Goatsbeard)

Trifolium pratense L. – Red Clover

Trifolium repens L. – White Clover

Triglochin palustris L. – Marsh Arrowgrass

Trillium cernuum L. – Nodding Trillium

Trillium cuneatum Raf. – Sweet Betsy

Trillium erectum L. – Purple Trillium

Trillium flexipes Raf. – Drooping Trillium (Nodding Wakerobin, Declining Trillium)

Trillium grandiflorum (Michx) Salisb. – Large-flowered Trillium (White Trillium)

Trillium luteum (Muhl.) Harbison – Yellow Trillium (Yellow Wakerobin)

Trillium nivale Riddell – Snow Trillium

Trillium recurvatum Beck – Prairie Trillium

Trillium sessile L. – Toadshade (Sessile Trillium)

Triosteum perfoliatum L. – Horse Gentian (Late Horse Gentian)

Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière – Eastern Hemlock

Typha angustifolia L. – Narrow-leaved Cattail

Typha latifolia L. – Common Cattail

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Ulmus americana L. – American Elm

Ulmus pumila L. – Siberian Elm [Not in the Garden]

Ulmus rubra Muhl. – Slippery Elm (Red Elm)

Ulmus thomasii Sarg. - Rock Elm (Cork Elm) [Historical - not extant]

Urtica dioica L. subsp. gracilis (Aiton) Selander – Stinging Nettle (California Nettle)

Uvularia grandiflora Sm. – Large-flowered Bellwort

Uvularia sessilifolia L. – Wild Oats (Sissileleaf Bellwort)

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Valeriana officinalis L. – Garden Valerian

Verbascum thapsus L. – Common Mullein

Verbena hastata L. – Blue Vervain (Swamp Vervain)

Verbena stricta L. – Hoary Vervain

Verbena urticifolia L. – White Vervain

Verbesina alternifolia (L.) Britton ex Kearney – Wingstem - [Not in the Garden]

Vernonia fasciculata Michx. – Ironweed (Prairie Ironweed)

Veronica serpyllifolia L. – Thyme-leaf Speedwell [Historical, not extant]

Veronicastrum virginicum (L.) Farw. – Culver's Root

Viburnum dentatum L. – Southern Arrowwood

Viburnum lantana L. – Wayfaring-tree - [Not in the Garden]

Viburnum lentago L. – Nannyberry

Viburnum opulus L. var . americanum Aiton. – Highbush Cranberry (American Cranberrybush)

Viburnum opulus L. var. opulus – European Cranberrybush

Viburnum rafinesquianum Schult. – Downy Arrowwood

Vicia americana Muhl. ex Willd. – American Vetch

Vicia villosa Roth – Hairy Vetch - [Not in the Garden]

Vinca minor L. – Common Periwinkle (Running Myrtle)

Viola canadensis L. – Canada Violet (Canadian White Violet)

Viola pedata L. – Bird's-foot Violet [Historical, not extant].]

Viola pedatifida G. Don – Prairie Birdsfoot Violet

Viola pubescens Aiton – Downy Yellow Violet

Viola sororia Willd. (Viola papilionacea) – Common Blue Violet, (Woolly Blue Violet)

Vitis riparia Michx. – Riverbank Grape

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Z

Zizia aurea (L.) W.D.J. Koch – Golden Alexanders (Golden Zizia)

Zanthoxylum americanum Mill. – Prickly-ash

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