Friends of the Wild Flower Garden
Upland Garden Hillside in October

Site Plan and Archive

Here you will find links to all the content on The Friends of the Wild Flower Garden web site. Unlike the main pages, links here are arranged by topic. These topics include links to articles previously published in The Friend's newsletter - The Fringed Gentian™.

Plant List by Common Name

Pages for thumbnail photos only:
A - D - (by common name)
E - M - (by common name)
N - S - (by common name)
T - Z - (by common name)
Grasses - (by scientific name)
Ferns - (by scientific name)

A sampling of plants of the Eloise Butler Wildflower Garden, both present and historic, and with a few others added in that are native to Minnesota or can be found in Minnesota or can be grown in Minnesota.

Clicking the web-link on the common name gives a page of photos and plant information in a separate window.

Plants without links to an info page will have a thumbnail photo in the thumbnail pages listed at right.

Ferns and Grasses are listed with the flowering forbs.
Trees and large shrubs are listed separately after the forbs. Go There -
Invasive plants are re-listed as a group after the trees. Go There -
Historical (once present) and other plants not in the Garden are so noted.


Botanical classification: Over the last several years Botanists have reclassified many plants from previous classifications. In some cases consolidating species and varieties and in some cases reclassifying to a different genus or even plant family. We use Flora of North America; the Comprehensively Annotated Checklist of the Flora of Minnesota from the University of MN, then the USDA Plants Database which in early 2010 completed a major update of these botanical classifications and also the 2009 Garden Census. Reference books in print will not reflect these recent updates until revised editions are published. While many plants may be known by a previous botanical name and, in many cases by a variety of common names, we have updated the listings on this website to what seems to be the newest nomenclature. Note: While we have tried to be as accurate as possible in the information given, there may be unintended errors. Please advise us if you suspect the information is not accurate.



Aaron's Rod: See -Live Forever - Hylotelephium telephium L. [old - Sedum telephium]

Agrimony (Soft Agrimony) - Agrimonia pubescens Wallr.

Allegheny Blackberry - Rubus allegheniensis Porter

Alum Root see American Alumroot - – Heuchera americana L.

Amberique Bean (Trailing Wild Bean) - Strophostyles helvola (L.) Elliott

American Alumroot - Heuchera americana L.

American Bellflower -see- Tall Bellflower - Campanulastrum americanum (L.) Small

American Bittersweet -see- Climbing Bittersweet - Celastrus scandens L.

American Feverfew see-Wild Quinine - Parthenium integrifolium L.

American Germander (Wood Sage): See Canada Germander - Teucrium canadense L.

American Hog Peanut - Amphicarpaea bracteata (L.) Fernald.

American Lopseed - Phryma leptostachya L.

American Mannagrass - Glyceria grandis S. Watson

American Senna - Senna hebecarpa (Fernald) Irwin & Barneby

American Vetch - Vicia americana Muhl. ex Willd.

Anise or Fragrant Giant Hyssop - see Blue Giant Hyssop - Agastache foeniculum (Pursh) Kuntze

Aniseroot - Osmorhiza longistylis (Torr.) DC.

Asters - See:
-Aromatic Aster
-Azure Aster (Sky Blue Aster)
-Bigleaf Aster (Large-leaved Aster)
-Calico Aster - (Side Flowering Aster)
-Common Blue Wood Aster (Heart-leaved Aster)
-Flat-topped Aster
-Heart-leaved Aster (Common Blue Wood Aster)
-Many-flowered Aster (Heath Aster)
-Ontario Aster
-New England Aster
-Panicled Aster (White Panicle Aster)
-Redstem Aster (Purplestem Aster)
-Short's Aster
-Side-flowering Aster (Calico Aster)
-Sky Blue Aster (Azure Aster)
-Smooth Blue Aster
-Silky Aster (Western Silver Aster)
-White Arrowleaf Aster
-White Heath Aster (Many-flowered Aster)
-White Panicle Aster
-White Wood Aster

Annual Fleabane - (Eastern Daisy Fleabane) - Erigeron annuus (L.) Pers.

Aromatic Aster - - [Historical, not extant] Symphyotrichum oblongifolium (Nutt.) G.L.Nesom

Arrow-leaved Tearthumb – - Persicaria sagittata (L.) H. Gross - former Polygonum sagittatum L.

Arrow-leaved Aster see White Arrowleaf Aster – - Symphyotrichum urophyllum (Lindl.) G.L. Nesom

Arrowleaf Violet - Viola sagittata Aiton

Arrowgrass - Triglochin palustris L.

Asparagus - Asparagus officinalis L.

Autumn Onion -see- Wild Onion - Allium stellatum Fraser ex Ker Gawl.

Avens - See:
- White Avens
- Yellow Avens

Azure Aster see Sky Blue Aster – - Symphyotrichum oolentangiense (Riddell) var. oolentangiense [old- Aster azureus]

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Baneberry, Red (Red berry form) - - Actaea rubra Willd.

Baneberry, Red (White berry form) - Actaea rubra Willd.

Baneberry, White - - Actaea pachypoda Elliot

Bastard Toadflax - - Comandra umbellata (L.) Nutt.

Beardtongues -see
-Foxglove Beardtongue (Talus Slope Pentstemon)
-Pale Beardtongue (Eastern White Beardtongue)
-Showy Beardtongue (Large Flowered Beardtongue)

Bedstraws -see
- Cleavers (Stickywilly)
- Fragrant Bedstraw
- Northern Bedstraw
- Rough Bedstraw
- Shining Bedstraw
- Threepetal Bedstraw

Beggar-tick -see:
- Devil's Beggar-tick
- Nodding Beggar-tick - see Nodding Bur Marigold
- Swamp Beggartick (Purplestem Beggartick)

Beggar's Lice -seeVirginia Stickseed -

Bellflowers - see:
- Clustered Bellflower (Dane's Blood)
- European Bellflower (Rampion Bellflower)
- Harebell
- Marsh Bellflower
- Tall Bellflower (American Bellflower)

Biennial Gaura - Gaura biennis L.

Big Bluestem - - Andropogon gerardii Vitman

Bigleaf Aster - - ( Large-leaved Aster) - Eurybia macrophylla L. Cass. [Old name = Aster macrophyllus]

Bindweeds - see
- Black Bindweed
- Field Bindweed
- Hedge Bindweed

Bird's Foot Coreopsis -see- Stiff Coreopsis - - Coreopsis palmata Nutt.

Bird's-foot Violet - - [Historical, not extant.] - Viola pedata L.

Birdsfoot Trefoil - - [not in the Garden] - Lotus corniculatus L.

Bishop's Cap - see Twoleaf - Mitrewort - - Mitella diphylla L.

Bittercress (Pennsylvania Bitter Cress) - Cardamine pensylvanica Lam.

Bittersweet see Climbing Bittersweet - - Celastrus scandens L.

Bittersweet Nightshade: See Climbing Nightshade - - Solanum dulcamara L.

Black-eyed Susan - - Rudbeckia hirta L.

Black Bindweed - - [not in the Garden] - Fallopia convolvulus (L.) A.Löve

Black Bugbane - Cimicifuga racemosa (L.) Nutt. [Actaea racemosa L. var. racemosa]

Black Cohosh - see Black Bugbane - Cimicifuga racemosa (L.) Nutt. [Actaea racemosa L. var. racemosa]

Black Medic Medicago lupulina L.

Black Mustard - - [not in the Garden] Brassica nigra (L.) W.D.J.Koch

Black Nightshade - Solanum nigrum L.

Black Raspberry - Rubus occidentalis L.

Blackberry Lily - Belamcanda chinensis (L.) DC.

Blackberries and Raspberries -See:
- Allegheny Blackberry
- Black Raspberry
- Blackberry
- Dewberry
- Purple Flowering Raspberry
- Thimbleberry
- Wild Red Raspberry

Bland Sweet CicelyOsmorhiza claytonii (Michx.) C.B.Clarke

Blazing Stars -see:
- Dense Blazing Star (Spiked Blazing Star, Marsh Gayfeather, Sessile-headed Blazing Star)
- Dotted Blazing Star (Dotted Gayfeather)
- Large-headed Blazing Star (Rocky Mountain Blazing Star, Northern Plains Gayfeather)
- Northern Blazing Star (New England Blazing Star, Northern Gayfeather)
- Ontario Blazing Star (Cylindrical Blazing Star, Dwarf Blazing Star, Barrelhead Gayfeather)
- Prairie Blazing Star (Prairie Gayfeather, Great Blazing Star, Cattail Gayfeather)
- Rough Blazing Star (Rough Gayfeather, Tall Blazing Star)
- Scaly Blazing Star (Loosescale Gayfeather, Colicroot)
- Shaggy Blazing Star (Grass-leaf Gayfeather)

Blisterwort -see- Hooked Crowfoot - Ranunculus recurvatus Poir.

Bloodroot - - Sanguinaria canadensis L.

Blue Cardinal Flower -See- Great Blue Lobelia - Lobelia siphilitica L.

Blue Cohosh - - Caulophyllum thalictroides (L.) Michx.

Blue Flag Iris - - Iris versicolor L.

Blue Giant Hyssop - (Giant Hyssop) - Agastache foeniculum (Pursh) Kuntze

Blue Grama - - [Historical, not extant.] - >Bouteloua gracilis (Kunth) Lag. ex Griffiths

Blue Oatgrass - Helictotrichon sempervirens (Vill.) Pilg.

Blue Squill (Siberian Squill) - Scilla siberica Haw.

Blue Vervain (Swamp Vervain) - Verbena hastata L.

Blue Wild Indigo - see - False Blue Indigo - Baptisia australis (L.) R. Br.

Blue-eyed Grass - - Sisyrinchium angustifolium Mill.

Bluejacket - (Ohio Spiderwort) - Tradescantia ohiensis Raf.

Blunt-leaved Sandwort - Moehringia lateriflora (L.) Fenzl [old=Arenaria lateriflora]

Boneset - Eupatorium perfoliatum L.

Bottle Gentian - (Closed Gentian) Gentiana clausa Raf. and Gentiana andrewsii Griseb.

Bouncing Bet - - (Soapwort) - Saponaria officinalis L.

Bracken Fern - Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn var. latiusculum

Bracted Spiderwort - Tradescantia bracteata Small

Bridewort: See Queen of the Meadow - Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim.

Bristly Buttercup: See Swamp buttercup - Ranunculus hispidus Michx. var nitidus

Bristly Greenbrier (Catbrier) - Smilax tamnoides L.

Broad-leaf Cattail - Typha latifolia L.

Broadleaf Arrowhead - Sagittaria latifolia Willd.

Broadleaf Burweed Sparganium eurycarpum Engelm.

Broadleaf Enchanter's Nightshade -see- Enchanter's Nightshade - Circaea lutetiana L. ssp. canadensis

Brown-eyed Susan - (Thin-leaved Coneflower) - Rudbeckia triloba L.

Bugbane see Black Bugbane - Cimicifuga racemosa (L.) Nutt. [Actaea racemosa var. racemosa]

Bulblet Water Hemlock - - [Not in Garden] - Cicuta bulbifera L.

Bull Thistle - [not in Garden] - Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten.

Bulrush - Dark Green - Scirpus atrovirens Willd.

Bur Marigold (Beggar-ticks) - - Bidens cernua L.

Burdock
- Common (Lesser) - Arctium minus Bernh.
- Great -
- Arctium lappa L. Listed together

Burnweed (Fireweed) - - Erechtites hieracifolia (L.) Raf ex DC

Bush's Poppy-mallowCallirhoe bushii Fernald [not in the Garden]

Butter and Eggs - - Linaria vulgaris Mill.

Butterfly Milkweed - - Asclepias tuberosa L.

Buttercups - See:
-Cursed Crowfoot (Celery-leaf Buttercup)
-Hooked Crowfoot (Hooked Buttercup)
-Kidneyleaf Buttercup (Littleleaf Buttercup, Small-flowered Buttercup)
-Swamp Buttercup (Hispid Buttercup, Rough Buttercup, Bristly Buttercup)
-Tall Buttercup (Upright Meadow Crowfoot)

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Calico Aster -see- Side Flowering Aster - - Symphyotrichum lateriflorum (L.) A. Love & D. Love [old- Aster lateriflorus]

California Nettle - see- Stinging Nettle - Urtica dioica L. ssp. gracilis (Aiton) Seland.

Canada Anemone - - - Anemone canadensis L.

Canada Bluegrass - Poa Compressa L.

Canada Fleabane- see Canadian Horseweed -

Canada Germander - Teucrium canadense L.

Canada Goldenrod -see - Late Goldenrod - - Solidago altissima L.

Canada Lily - (Meadow Lily) (Wild Yellow Lily) - Lilium canadense L.

Canada Moonseed - - Menispermum canadense L.

Canada Thistle - - Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.

Canada Tick-trefoil: See Showy Tick-trefoil- - - Desmodium canadense (L.) DC.

Canada Violet - - Viola canadensis L.

Canada Wild-rye - - Elymus canadensis L.

Canadian Clearweed - - Pilea pumila (L.) A.Gray

Canadian Hawkweed - - (Yellow Hawkweed) - Hieracium canadense var. canadense Michx.

Canadian Horseweed - - Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist

Canadian Milk Vetch - Astragalus canadensis L.

Canadian White Violet -see- Canada Violet - Viola canadensis L.

Canadian Wild Ginger -see- Wild Ginger - Asarum canadense L.

Canadian Wood Nettle -see- Wood Nettle - Laportea canadensis (L.) Weddell

Cardinal Flower - Lobelia cardinalis L.

Carrion Flower - Smilax herbacea L.

Catbrier (Bristly Greenbrier) - Smilax tamnoides L.

Catchflys - see
- Night-flowering
- Royal

Catnip - - [historical, not extant] - Nepeta cataria L.

Cattails - - listed together - see:
- Common Cattail (Broad-leaf) - Typha latifolia L. and
- Narrow-leaved Cattail - Typha angustifolia L.

Celandine Poppy -see- Wood Poppy - Stylophorum diphyllum (Michx.) Nutt.

Celery-leaved Crowfoot - - [not in the Garden] - Ranunculus sceleratus L.

Cherries -see trees and shrubs at bottom of the page

Chickweeds - see:
- Long-leaved Chickweed
- Mouse-ear Chickweed
- Star Chickweed

Chicory - Cichorium intybus L.

Christmas Fern - Polystichum acrostichoides (Michx.) Schott

Cinnamon Fern - Osmunda cinnamomea L. [Osmundastrum cinnamomeum (L.) C. Presl]

Cinquefoils -see:
- Common Cinquefoil
- Prairie Cinquefoil
- Rough Cinquefoil
- Rough-fruited Cinquefoil
- Shrubby Cinquefoil
- Silver Cinquefoil

Clammy Ground Cherry - Physalis heterophylla Nees

Clearweed see - Canadian Clearweed - Pilea pumila (L.) A.Gray

Cleavers (Stickywilly) - Galium aparine L.

Climbing Bittersweet - Celastrus scandens L.

Climbing Nightshade - Solanum dulcamara L.

Closed Gentian: See Bottle Gentian - Gentiana clausa Raf. and Gentiana andrewsii Griseb.

Clovers -see
- Red Clover
- White Clover
- White Sweet Clover
- Yellow Sweet Clover

Clustered Bellflower - (Dane's Blood) - Campanula glomerata L.

Columbine (Red or Wild Columbine) - Aquilegia canadensis L.

Comfrey - - [Historical - not extant] - Symphytum officinale L.

Common Beggartick - Bidens frondosa L.

Common Blue Violet - Viola sororia Willd. (Viola papilionacea)

Common Blue Wood Aster -see: Heart-leaved Aster - Symphyotrichum cordifolium (L.) G.L. Nesom

Common BugleAjuga reptans L. [Not in the Garden]

Common Burdock - Arctium minus Bernh.

Common Cattail - Typha latifolia L.

Common Cinquefoil - Potentilla simplex Michx.

Common Dogbane -see- Spreading Dogbane - Apocynum androsaemifolium L.

Common Evening Primrose - Oenothera biennis L.

Common Fleabane see Philadelphia Fleabane - Erigeron philadelphicus L.

Common Milkweed - Asclepias syriaca L.

Common Moonseed -see- Canada Moonseed - Menispermum canadense L.

Common Mullein - Verbascum thapsus L.

Common Periwinkle - Vinca minor L.

Common Plantain - Plantago major L.

Common Ragweed - Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.

Common St. Johnswort - Hypericum perforatum L.

Common Strawberry (Virginia Strawberry) - Fragaria virginiana Duchesne

Common Yellow Oxalis - Oxalis stricta L.

Compass Plant - Silphium laciniatum L.

Coneflowers - see:
- Black-eyed Susan
- Green-headed Coneflower (Goldenglow)
- Gray-headed Coneflower
- Long-headed Coneflower (Prairie Coneflower)
- Narrow-leaved Coneflower (Blacksamson Echinacea)
- Orange Coneflower
- Pale Purple Coneflower
- Purple Coneflower (Eastern Purple)
- Sweet Black-eyed Susan (Sweet Coneflower)
- Thin-leaved Coneflower (Brown-eyed Susan)

Cow Parsnip - Heracleum maximum Bartram

Crabgrass (Hairy Crabgrass) - Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop.

Cranberry - see trees and shrubs at bottom of the page

Creeping Charlie - (Ground Ivy) - Glechoma hederacea L.

Creeping Jenny - see - Moneywort - Lysimachia nummularia L.

Crinkleroot see Two-leaved Toothwort - Cardamine diphylla (Michx) Alph. Wood

Crown Vetch - - [not in the Garden] - Coronilla varia L.

Culver's root - Veronicastrum virginicum (L.) Farw.

Cup Plant - Silphium perfoliatum L.

Curly Dock - Rumex crispus L.

Curlycup Gumweed - - [Historical, not extant] - Grindelia squarrosa (Pursh) Dunal

Cursed Crowfoot [not in the Garden] - Ranunculus sceleratus L.

Cut-leaved Toothwort - Cardamine concatenata (Michx.) Small

Cutgrass (Whitegrass) - Leersia virginica Willd.

Cylindrical Blazing Star -see:Ontario Blazing Star - Liatris cylindracea Michx.

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Daisy Fleabane (Lesser Daisy Fleabane) - Erigeron strigosus Muhl. ex Willd.

Dame's Rocket - (Sweet Rocket) (Dame's Violet) - Hesperis matronalis L.

Dandelion - Taraxacum officinale F.H.Wigg.

Dane's Blood -see-Clustered Bellflower - Campanula glomerata L.

Dark Green Bulrush - Scirpus atrovirens Willd.

Darkthroat Shooting Star - Dodecatheon amethystinum (Fassett) Fassett

Day Lily - see
- Orange Day Lily
- Yellow Day Lily

Dense Blazing Star - Liatris spicata (L.) Willd.

Devil's Beggartick - Bidens frondosa L.

Devil's Darning Needles: See Virgin's Bower - Clematis virginiana L.

Dewberry - (Northern Dewberry) - Rubus flagellaris Willd.

Dodder - Common - Cuscuta gronovii Willd. ex. Schult

Dogtooth Violet -see- Yellow Trout Lily - Erythronium americanum Ker Gawl.

Dogwoods - See trees and shrubs at bottom of the page

Dotted Blazing Star Liatris punctata Hook. [Historical - not extant]

Dotted Smartweed - Persicaria punctata (Elliott) Small

Downy Gentian - Gentiana puberulenta J. S. Pringle

Downy Phlox - (Prairie Phlox) - Phlox pilosa L.

Downy Wood Mint - Blephilia cilata (L.) Benth.

Downy Yellow Violet - Viola pubescens Aiton

Drooping Trillium - (Nodding Wakerobin) - Trillium flexipes Raf.

Duckweed - see Lesser Duckweed - Lemna minor L.

Dutchman's Breeches - Dicentra cucullaria (L.) Bernh.

Dwarf Red Raspberry Rubus pubescens Raf.

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Early Meadow Rue - Thalictrum dioicum L.

Earlyleaf Brome (grass) - Bromus latiglumis (Shear) Hitchc.

Eastern Bluestar - (Willow Amsonia) - Amsonia tabernaemontana Walt.

Eastern Bottlebrush Grass - Elymus hystrix L. var. hystrix

Eastern Daisy Fleabane (Annual Fleabane) - Erigeron annuus (L.) Pers.

Eastern False Rue Anemone -see- False Rue Anemone - Enemion biternatum Raf. (former Isopyrum biternatum)

Eastern Purple Coneflower - Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench

Eastern Swamp Saxifrage - Micranthes pensylvanica (L.) Haw. former Saxifraga pensylvanica L.

Eastern Waterleaf -see- Virginia Waterleaf - Hydrophyllum virginianum L.

Elderberries -see trees and shrubs at page bottom

Elecampane - - [Historical, not extant] - Inula helenium L.

Elm-leaved Goldenrod - Solidago ulmifolia Muhl. ex Willd.

Enchanter's Nightshade - Circaea lutetiana ssp. canadensis (L.) Asch. & Magnus

European Bellflower - (Rampion Bellflower) - Campanula rapunculoides L.

Evening Primrose - Common Evening Primrose - Oenothera biennis L.

Everlasting Pea - - [not in the Garden] - Lathyrus latifolius L.

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False Blue Indigo - Baptisia australis (L.) R. Br.

False White Indigo see White False Indigo - Baptisia alba (L) Vent. var. macrophylla

False Dragonhead see -Obedient Plant - Physostegia virginiana (L.) Benth.

False Rue Anemone - (Eastern False Rue Anemone) - Enemion biternatum Raf. (former Isopyrum biternatum)

False Solomon's-seal - (Feathery False Lily of the Valley) - Maianthemum racemosum (L.) Old=Smilacina racemosa

Feverfew - - [not in the Garden] - Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Sch.Bip.

Few-leaved Sunflower see Western SunflowerHelianthus occidentalis Riddell

Ferns in the Garden

----Bracken Fern - Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn var. latiusculum

----Brittle Bladderfern (Northern Fragile) - Cystopteris fragilis (L.) Bernhardi

----Bulblet Fern Cystopteris bulbifera (L.) Bernhardi

----Christmas Fern - Polystichum acrostichoides (Michx.) Schott

----Cinnamon Fern - Osmunda cinnamomea L.

----Crested Wood Fern - Dryopteris cristata (L.) A.Gray

----Goldie's Fern (Giant Wood Fern) - Dryopteris goldiana (Hook. ex Goldie) A.Gray

----Grape Fern Botrychium sp.

----Intermediate Wood Fern Dryopteris intermedia

----Interrupted Fern - Osmunda claytoniana L.

----Lady Fern - Athyrium filix-femina (L.) Roth

----Marsh Fern Thelypteris palustris Schott

----Northern Maidenhair Fern - Adiantum pedatum L.

----Ostrich Fern - Matteuccia struthiopteris (L.) Todaro

----Royal Fern - Osmunda regalis L.

----Sensitive Fern - Onoclea sensibilis L.

----Silvery False Spleenwort - Deparia acrostichoides (SW.) M. Kato

----Spinulose Wood Fern (Toothed Wood Fern) - Dryopteris carthusiana (Vill.) H.P.Fuchs

----Spreading Wood Fern Dryopteris expansa (C.Presl) Fraser-Jeck. & Jermy

Field Bindweed - - [Historical, not extant] - Convolvulus arvensis L.

Field HorsetailEquisetum arvense L. [not in the Garden]

Field Mint - see Wild Mint - Mentha arvensis L. var. canadensis

Field Pennycress - - [not in the Garden] - Thlaspi arvense L.

Field Pussytoes - Antennaria neglecta Greene

Field Sow Thistle - - [Historical- not extant] - Sonchus arvensis L.

Field Thistle - Cirsium discolor (Muhl. ex Willd.) Spreng.

Fireweed (Burnweed) - Erechtites hieracifolius (L.) Raf. ex DC.

Fireweed (Great Willow Herb) - Epilobium angustifolium L. [some entities now assign to Chamerion angustifolium (L.) Holub]

Flat-topped Aster - Doellingeria umbellata (Mill.) var. pubens [former - Aster umbellatus]

Fleabanes - see:
- Annual Fleabane - see Eastern
- Common Fleabane see- Philadelphia
- Daisy Fleabane (Lesser Daisy Fleabane) - Erigeron strigosus Muhl. ex Willd.
- Eastern Daisy Fleabane - Erigeron annuus (L.) Pers.
- Philadelphia -(Common) - Erigeron philadelphicus L
- Prairie - see Daisy Fleabane

-Comparison sheet of 3 fleabanes in the Garden -

Flowering Raspberry - (Thimbleberry) - Rubus parviflorus Nutt.

Flowering Spurge - Euphorbia corollata L.

Foamflower - (Heartleaf Foamflower) - Tiarella cordifolia L.

Fool's Parsley - - [Not a Garden plant.] - Aethusa cynapium L.

Forget-me-not -see - True Forget-me-not - Myosotis scorpioides L.

Four o'clock see Heart-leaved Four o'clock - Mirabilis nyctaginea (Michx.) MacMill.

Fowl Mannagrass - Glyceria striata (Lam.) Hitchc.

Foxglove -see- Grecian Foxglove - Digitalis lanata Ehrh.

Foxglove Beardtongue - (Talus Slope Penstemon) - Penstemon digitalis Nutt. ex Sims

Fragrant Bedstraw - (Sweet-scented Bedstraw) - Galium triflorum Michx.

Fragrant False Indigo - - [Historical, not extant- - Amorpha nana Nutt.

Fragrant Giant Hyssop - see Blue Giant Hyssop -  

Fringed Black Bindweed Polygonum cilinode Michx.

Fringed Loosestrife - Lysimachia ciliata L.

Fringeleaf Wild Petunia - Ruellia humilis Nutt.

Fumewort (Spring Fumewort) - Corydalis solida (L.) Clairv.

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Galax (Beetleweed) - Galax urceolata (Poir.) Brummitt

Garden Loosestrife Lysimachia vulgaris L.

Garden Phlox - Phlox paniculata L.

Garlic Mustard - Alliaria petiolata (M. Bieb.) Cavara & Grande

Gaura - Biennial - Gaura biennis L.

Gentians - see:
-Bottle (Closed) Gentian
-Plain Gentian (Pale, Yellow, Cream Gentian)

Giant Goldenrod Solidago gigantea Aiton

Giant Ragweed - (Not in the Garden) - Ambrosia trifida L. var. trifida

Giant Sunflower (Tall Sunflower) - [Historical - not extant] - Helianthus giganteus L.

Goatsbeards -see:
- Yellow Salsify -
- Yellow Goatsbeard - (Meadow Goatsbeard)

Glade Mallow [Not in Garden} - Napaea dioica L.

Golden Alexanders - (Golden Zizia) - Zizia aurea (L.) W.D.J. Koch

Golden Ragwort - Packera aurea (L.) A. Löve & D. Löve [old- Senecio aureus]

Goldenglow - see Green-headed Coneflower - Rudbeckia lanciniata L.

Goldenrods -see:
- Canada (Tall) Goldenrod
- Elm-leaved Goldenrod
- Grass-leaved Goldenrod
- Gray Goldenrod (Old Field)
- Late Goldenrod
- Riddell's Goldenrod
- Showy Goldenrod
- Stiff Goldenrod (Hard-leaved)
- Zigzag Goldenrod

Goldenseal Hydrastis canadensis L.

Goldie's Fern - Dryopteris goldiana (Hook. ex Goldie) A.Gray

Gooseberries -see trees and shrubs at bottom of page

Grape Woodbine - Parthenocissus vitacea (Knerr) Hitchc.

Grass-leaved Goldenrod - Euthamia graminifolia (L.) Nutt. [Older - Solidago graminifolia]

Grasses of the Garden - A separate thumbnail page for all the Garden grasses

Gray Goldenrod - (Old Field Goldenrod) - Solidago nemoralis Aiton.

Gray-headed Coneflower - Ratibida pinnata (Vent.) Barnhart

Great Blue Lobelia - Lobelia siphilitica L.

Great Burdock - Arctium lappa L.

Great Indian Plantain - Arnoglossum reniforme (Hook.) H. Rob.

Great Solomon's Seal - (Smooth Solomon's Seal) - Polygonatum biflorum (Walter) Elliott var. commutatum

Great St. Johnswort - Hypericum pyramidatum Aiton

Great Willow Herb: See Fireweed - Epilobium angustifolium L. [some entities now assign to Chamerion angustifolium (L.) Holub]

Greater Yellow Lady's-slipper - Cypripedium parviflorum Salisb. var. pubescens (Willd.) Knight (older -Cypripedium calceolus var. pubescens)

Grecian Foxglove - Digitalis lanata Ehrh.

Green-headed Coneflower - (Goldenglow) - Rudbeckia laciniata L.

Greek Valerian -see- Jacob's Ladder - Polemonium reptans L.

Ground Cherries - see:
- Clammy Ground Cherry
- Virginia Ground Cherry

Groundnut (Wild Bean) - Apios americana Medik.

Ground Ivy - see Creeping Charlie - Glechoma hederacea L.

Grove Sandwort: SeeBluntleaf Sandwort - Moehringia lateriflora L. [old=Arenaria lateriflora]

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Hawkweeds - see:
- Canadian Hawkweed (Yellow Hawkweed)
- Orange Hawkweed

Hairy Bead Grass (Paspalum) - Paspalum setaceum Michx.

Hairy Golden-asterHeterotheca villosa (Pursh) Shinners [Historical, not extant]

Hairy Sunflower -see- Stiff-haired Sunflower - Helianthus hirsutus Raf.

Hairy Vetch - Vicia villosa Roth

Hairy Wood Mint - Blephilia hirsuta (Pursh) Benth.

Hairy Woodland Brome (grass) - Bromus pubescens L.

Harebell - Campanula rotundifolia L.

Heal-all (Self Heal) - Prunella vulgaris L.

Heartleaf Foamflower - see- Foamflower - Tiarella cordifolia L.

Heart-leaved Aster - (Common Blue Wood Aster) - Symphyotrichum cordifolium (L.) G.L. Nesom

Heart-leaved Four-o'clock - (Wild Four-o'clock) - Mirabilis nyctaginea(Michx.) MacMill.

Hedge Bindweed - (Wild Morning Glory)- Calystegia sepium (L.) R. Br.

Helleborine (Broad-leaved Helleborine) - Epipactis helleborine (L.) Crantz

Hepatica (Round-lobed and Sharp-lobed) - Anemone acutiloba (DC) G.Lawson and Anemone americana (DC) H.Hara

Hermit of the Bog - See Skunk Cabbage -

Hispid Buttercup: See Swamp Buttercup - Ranunculus hispidus Michx.

Hoary Alyssum - - [Not in the Garden] - Berteroa incana (L.) DC.

Hoary Wood Mint (Hairy Wood Mint) - Blephilia hirsuta (Pursh) Benth.

Hoary Vervain - Verbena stricta L.

Hog Peanut - Amphicarpaea bracteata (L.) Fernald.

Hooked Crowfoot - (Blisterwort) - Ranunculus recurvatus Poir.

Horse Gentian - (Late Horse Gentian) - Triosteum perfoliatum L.

Horsemint - see Spotted Bee-balm - Monarda punctata L. [Historical Garden Plant - not extant.]

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Indian Cup: See Cup Plant - Silphium perfoliatum L.

Indian Grass - Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash

Indianhemp -see- Prairie Dogbane - Apocynum cannabinum L.

Indian Turnip: See Jack-in-the-pulpit - Arisaema triphyllum (L.) Schott

Interrupted Fern - Osmunda claytoniana L.

Ironweed (Prairie Ironweed) - Vernonia fasciculata Michx.

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Jack-go-to-bed-at-noon see Meadow Goatsbeard - Tragopogon pratensis L. [Old - Tragopogon lamottei Rouy]

Jack-in-the-pulpit - (Indian Turnip) - Arisaema triphyllum (L.) Schott

Jacob's-ladder - (Greek Valerian) - Polemonium reptans L.

Japanese Hedge Parsley - - [Not a Garden plant] - Torilis japonica (Houtt.) DC.

Japanese Knotweed - Fallopia japonica (Houtt.) Ronse Decraene var. japonica - former Polygonum cuspidatum

Jerusalem Artichoke - Helianthus tuberosus L.

Jewelweeds see:
Pale Touch-me-not) - Impatiens pallida Nutt.
Spotted Touch-me-not - (Jewelweed) - Impatiens capensis Meerb. (I. biflora)

Joe-Pye Weeds see
-Spotted Joe-Pye Weed -
-Sweet Scented Joe-Pye Weed -

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Kentucky Bluegrass - Poa pratensis L.

Kidneyleaf Buttercup (Littleleaf Buttercup) - Ranunculus abortivus L.

King of the Meadow -see- Tall Meadow Rue - Thalictrum pubescens Pursh

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Lady's-slippers - see:
- Showy Lady's-slipper
- Greater Yellow Lady's-slipper
- Lesser Yellow Lady's-slipper

Lady Fern - Athyrium filix-femina (L.) Roth

Lanceleaf Figwort - Scrophularia lanceolata Pursh.

Large-flowered Beardtongue -see: Showy Beardtongue - Penstemon grandiflorus Nutt.

Large-flowered Bellwort - Uvularia grandiflora Sm.

Large-flowered Trillium - (White Trillium) - Trillium grandiflorum (Michx) Salisb.

Large-headed Blazing Star - (Rocky Mountain Blazing Star) - Liatris ligulistylis (A. Nels) K. Schum.

Large-leaved Aster - (Bigleaf Aster) - Eurybia macrophylla L. Cass. [Old name = Aster macrophyllus]

Large-leaved False Indigo see-White False Indigo - Baptisia alba (L) Vent. var. macrophylla

Larkspur - Tall - [not in Garden] - Delphinium exaltatum Aiton

Late Goldenrod - Solidago altissima L.

Lawn PrunellaPrunella vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris [Not in the Garden]

Leadplant - Amorpha canescens Pursh

Leafy Spurge - Euphorbia esula L.

Leopard Flower - see Blackberry Lily - Belamcanda chinensis (L.) DC.

Lesser Burdock - Arctium minus Bernh.

Lesser Daisy Fleabane - Erigeron strigosus Muhl. ex Willd.

Lesser Duckweed - Lemna minor L.

Lesser Purple Fringed Orchid - [historical plant - not extant] - Platanthera psycodes (L.) Lindl.

Lesser Yellow Lady's-slipper [historical plant -not extant] - Cypripedium parviflorum Salisb. var. makasin

Lilies - see:
- Blackberry Lily (Leopard Flower)
- Canada Lily (Meadow - Wild Yellow Lily)
- Michigan Lily
- Minnesota Dwarf Trout Lily
- Orange Day Lily
- Turk's Cap Lily
- Yellow Day Lily
- Yellow Trout Lily
- White Trout Lily

Little Bluestem - Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash var. scoparium

Littleleaf Buttercup - see: Kidneyleaf Buttercup - Ranunculus abortivus L.

Live Forever - (Witch's Moneybags) - Hylotelephium telephium (L.) H. Ohba. [old - Sedum telephium]

Long-headed Coneflower - (Prairie Coneflower) - Ratibida columnifera (Nutt.) Woot. & Standl.

Long-leaved Bluet Hedyotis longifolia (Gaertn.) Hook [Historical, not extant]

Long-leaved Chickweed - (Long-leaved Stichwort) - Stellaria longifolia Muhl. ex Willd.

Loosestrifes -see:
- Fringed Loosestrife
- Garden Loosestrife
- Purple Loosestrife
- Swamp Candles (Yellow Loosestrife)
- Whorled Loosestrife

Lopseed - Phryma leptostachya L.

Lupine see - Wild Lupine - Lupinus perennis L.

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Mad-dog Skullcap Scutellaria lateriflora L.

Maidenhair Fern see Northern Maidenhair Fern - Adiantum pedatum L.

Maltese Cross - [Historical plant -not extant] - Lychnis chalcedonica L.

Many-flowered Aster -see - White Heath Aster - Symphyotrichum ericoides L. [old- Aster ericoides]

Marsh Bellflower - - [Historic plant, not extant] - Campanula aparinoides Pursh

Marsh Hedge-nettle - - [Historical, not extant] - Stachys palustris L.

Marsh Marigold - (Cowslip) - Caltha palustris L.

Marsh Muhly Grass - Muhlenbergia racemosa (Michx.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.

Marsh PeaLathyrus palustris L. [not in the garden]

Marsh Skullcap Scutellaria galericulata L.

May Apple - Podophyllum peltatum L.

Meadow Evening Primrose -see- Prairie Sundrops - Oenothera pilosella Raf.

Meadow Goatsbeard - (Yellow Goatsbeard) - Tragopogon pratensis L. [Old - Tragopogon lamottei Rouy]

Meadow sweet: See Queen of the Meadow - Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim.

Mexican Muhly (Satin Grass) - Muhlenbergia mexicana (L.) Trin.

Michigan Lily - Lilium michiganense L.

Milkweeds - see
- Butterfly Weed
- Common Milkweed
- Poke Milkweed
- Swamp Milkweed
- Whorled Milkweed

Minnesota Dwarf Trout Lily - Erythronium propullans A. Gray

Mitrewort see: Twoleaf Mitrewort - Mitella diphylla L.

Moneywort - (Creeping Jenny) - Lysimachia nummularia L.

Monkshood Aconitum napellus L. [Not in the Garden]

Moonseed: See Common Moonseed - Menispermum canadense L.

Motherwort - Leonurus cardiaca L.

Mountain Laurel Kalmia latifolia L.

Mouse-ear Chickweed - Cerastium fontanum emend Jalas ssp. vulgare

Muhly Grass (Marsh Muhly) - Muhlenbergia racemosa (Michx.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.

Mullein (Common) - Verbascum thapsus L.

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Narrow-leaved Cattail - Typha angustifolia L.

Narrow-leaved Coneflower - - [Historical, not extant] - Echinacea angustifolia DC.

Narrowleaf Blue-eyed Grass - Sisyrinchium angustifolium Mill.

Narrowleaf Hawksbeard Crepis tectorum L.

Nettles - see
- Canadian Clearweed
- Stinging Nettle (California Nettle)
- Wood Nettle (Canadian Wood Nettle)

New England Aster - Symphyotrichum novae-angliae (L.) Nesom [old- Aster novae-angliae]

New England Blazing Star see- Northern Blazing Star - Liatris scariosa (L.) Willd. var. novae-angliae Lunell

New Jersey Tea - Ceanothus americanus L.

Night Flowering Catchfly - - [Historical, not extant] - Silene noctiflora L

Nodding Bur Marigold - (Nodding Beggar-tick) - Bidens cernua L.

Nodding Trillium - Trillium cernuum L.

Nodding Wakerobin -see- Drooping Trillium - Trillium flexipes Raf.

Nodding Wild Onion - Allium cernuum Roth.

Northern Bedstraw - Galium boreale L.

Northern Blazing Star - (New England Blazing Star) - Liatris scariosa (L.) Willd. var. novae-angliae Lunell

Northern Bugleweed Lycopus uniflorus Michx.

Northern Bush Honeysuckle - Diervilla lonicera Mill.

Northern Green Orchid - (historical plant - not extant) - Platanthera aquilonis Sheviak

Northern Maidenhair Fern - Adiantum pedatum L.

Northern Sea OatsChasmanthium latifolium (Michx.) H.O.Yates [Not in the Garden]

Northern Water Plantain - Alisma triviale Pursh

Northern Willowherb (American Willowherb) - Epilobium ciliatum Raf. ssp. glandulosum (Lehm.)

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Obedient Plant - -(False Dragonhead) - Physostegia virginiana (L.) Benth.

Ohio Spiderwort (Bluejacket) - Tradescantia ohiensis Raf.

Old Field Goldenrod - see Gray Goldenrod - Solidago nemoralis Aiton.

Old Man's Beard: See Virgin's Bower - Clematis virginiana L.

Old Man's Whiskers -see- Prairie Smoke - Geum triflorum Pursh

Ontario Aster - Symphyotrichum ontarionis (Wiegand) G.L. Nesom

Ontario Blazing Star - (Cylindrical Blazing Star) - Liatris cylindracea Michx.

Orange Coneflower - - [not in the Garden] - Rudbeckia fulgida Aiton

Orange Day Lily - Hemerocallis fulva L.

Orange Hawkweed - Hieracium aurantiacum L.

Ostrich Fern - Matteuccia struthiopteris (L.) Todaro

Oxeye Daisy - Leucanthemum vulgare Lam (Older - Chrysanthemum leucanthemum)

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Pale Beardtongue - - [not in the Garden] - Penstemon pallidus Small

Pale Corydalis - (historical Garden plant - not extant) - Corydalis sempervirens (L.) Pers.

Pale Gentian - See Plain Gentian - Gentiana alba Muhl. ex Nutt. (Gentiana flavida A.Gray)

Pale Indian Plantain - Arnoglossum atriplicifolium (L.) H. Rob.

Pale Jewelweed -see- Pale Touch-me-not - Impatiens pallida Nutt.

Pale Purple Coneflower - Echinacea pallida (Nutt.) Nutt.

Pale Touch-me-not - (Pale Jewelweed) - Impatiens pallida Nutt.

Paleleaf Woodland Sunflower - Helianthus strumosus L.

Pale Yellow Iris -see- Yellow Flag Iris - Iris pseudacorus L.

Panicgrass (Scribner's Panicgrass) - Dichanthelium oligosanthes (Schult.) Gould var. scribnerianum (Nash) Gould

Panicled Aster -see White Panicle Aster - Symphyotrichum lanceolatum var. lanceolatum (Willd.) Nesom

Partridge Berry Mitchella repens L.

Partridge Pea - Chamaecrista fasciculata (Michx.) Greene

Paspalum (Hairy Bead Grass) - Paspalum setaceum Michx.

Pasque Flower - - [Historical, not extant] - Anemone patens L. var. multifida Pritz.

Pearly EverlastingAnaphalis margaritacea (L.) Benth. & Hook.f. [Historical, not extant]

Pennsylvania Sedge -see Yellow Sedge - Carex pensylvanica Lam.

Pepper Grass Lepidium densiflorum Schrad.

Peppermint - Mentha x piperita L. (Prosp.) [aquatica-spicata]

Pepperroot: See Cut-leaved Toothwort - Cardamine concatenata (Michx.) - (old- Dentaria laciniata)

Perennial Pea - see Everlasting Pea - Lathyrus latifolius L.

Philadelphia Fleabane - (Common Fleabane) - Erigeron philadelphicus L.

Phlox - see:
- Downy Phlox (Prairie Phlox)
- Garden Phlox
- Wild Blue Phlox
- Wild Sweet William

Plain Gentian - (Yellowish Gentian) - Gentiana alba Muhl. ex Nutt. (Gentiana flavida A.Gray)

Plains Wild Indigo Baptisia bracteata Muhl. ex Elliot

Pointed-leaved Tick-trefoil - Desmodium glutinosum (Muhl. ex Willd.)

Poison Ivy - see - Western Poison Ivy -  

Poke Milkweed - Asclepias exaltata L.

Porcupine Grass - Hesperostipa spartea (Trin.) Barkworth

Prairie Birdsfoot Violet Viola pedatifida G. Don

Prairie Blazing Star - Liatris pycnostachya Michx.

Prairie Cinquefoil - - [Historical, not extant] - Potentilla arguta Pursh var. arguta

Prairie Coneflower -see- Long-headed Coneflower - Ratibida columnifera (Nutt.) Woot. & Standl.

Prairie Cordgrass - Spartina pectinata Bosc. ex Link.

Prairie Dock - (Prairie Rosinweed) - Silphium terebinthinaceum Jacq.

Prairie Dogbane (Indian Hemp) - Apocynum cannabinum L.

Prairie Dropseed - Sporobolus heterolepis (A. Gray) A. Gray

Prairie Fleabane - Erigeron strigosus Muhl. ex Willd.

Prairie Ironweed -see Ironweed - Vernonia fasciculata Michx.

Prairie LoosestrifeLysimachia quadriflora Sims [not in the Garden]

Prairie Phlox - see Downy Phlox - Phlox pilosa L.

Prairie Ragwort - Packera plattensis (Nutt.) W.A.Weber & A.Löve

Prairie Rosinweed - see - Prairie Dock - Silphium terebinthinaceum Jacq.

Prairie Sage -see- White Sagebrush - Artemisia ludoviciana Nutt. subsp. ludoviciana

Prairie Shooting Star -See- Shooting Star - Dodecatheon meadia L. ssp. meadia

Prairie Smoke - (Old Man's Whiskers) - Geum triflorum Pursh

Prairie Sundrops - (Meadow Evening Primrose) - Oenothera pilosella Raf.

Prairie Trillium - Trillium recurvatum Beck

Prairie Violet - Viola pedatifida G. Don

Prickly Lettuce - Lactuca serriola L.

Pride of Ohio -see- Shooting Star - Dodecatheon meadia L.

Primroses, see:
-Evening Primrose
-Prairie Sundrops (Meadow Evening Primrose)

Purple Bergamot - Monarda media Willd.

Purple Coneflower see - Eastern Purple Coneflower - Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench

Purple Flowering Raspberry - - [historical - not extant] - Rubus odoratus L.

Purple Giant Hyssop - Agastache scrophulariifolia (Willd.) Kuntze.

Purple Loosestrife - Lythrum salicaria L.

Purple Meadow Rue -see- Tall Meadow Rue - Thalictrum dasycarpum Fisch & Ave-Lall. (Older - Thalictrum polygamum)

Purple Prairie Clover - Dalea purpurea Vent. (old - Petalostemon purpureum)

Purplestem Aster - Symphyotrichum puniceum (L.) A. Löve & D. Löve var. puniceum

Purple Trillium - Trillium erectum L.

Pussytoes - Field - Antennaria neglecta Greene

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Quackgrass - Elymus repens (L.) Gould

Queen of the Meadow - Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim.

Queen of the Prairie - Filipendula rubra (Hill)

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Ragweeds - see
- Common Ragweed
- Giant Ragweed

Ragwort, Golden - Packera aurea L. [old- Senecio aureus]

Ramp - see Wild Leek - Allium tricoccum Sol.

Rampion Bellflower- see- European Bellflower - Campanula rapunculoides L.

Raspberries and Blackberries -See:
- Allegheny Blackberry
- Black Raspberry
- Dewberry
- Dwarf Red Raspberry
- Swamp Blackberry
- Thimbleberry
- Wild Red Raspberry

Rattlesnake-master - Eryngium yuccifolium Michx.

Rattlesnake Root see White Rattlesnake Root - Prenanthes alba L.

Red Baneberry - red berry form - Actaea rubra Willd.

Red Baneberry - white berry form - Actaea rubra Willd.

Red Clover - Trifolium pratense L.

Red Columbine -see-Wild Columbine - Aquilegia canadensis L.

Red Puccoon: See Bloodroot - Sanguinaria canadensis L.

Red Trillium Trillium sulcatum Patrick

Red Turtlehead - Chelone obliqua L.

Red-top Grass - Agrostis gigantea Roth

Redstem Aster - Symphyotrichum puniceum (L.) A. Löve & D. Löve [old- Aster puniceus]

Reed Canary Grass - Phalaris arundinacea L.

Rice Cutgrass - Leersia oryzoides (L.) Sw.

Riddell's Goldenrod - Solidago riddellii Frank ex Riddell

Riverbank Grape - Vitis riparia Michx.

Rocky Mountain Blazing Star -see: Large-headed Blazing Star - Liatris ligulistylis (A. Nels) K. Schum.

Roses: See- Trees and shrubs at page bottom

Rosin-weed see Wholeleaf Rosinweed - Silphium integrifolium Michx.

Rough Bedstraw - Galium asprellum Michx.

Rough Blazing Star - Liatris aspera Michx.

Rough Buttercup -see- Swamp buttercup - Ranunculus hispidus Michx.

Rough Cinquefoil - [historical, not extant] - Potentilla norvegica L.

Rough Fruited Cinquefoil - Potentilla recta L.

Round-headed Bushclover - Lespedeza capitata Michx.

Round-lobed Hepatica - Anemone americana (DC) H.Hara - (Hepatica nobilis Schreb. var. obtusa (Pursh) Steyerm. or Hepatica triloba

Roundleaf Greenbriar - - [historical, not extant] - Smilax rotundifolia L.

Royal Catchfly - Silene regia Sims

Royal Fern - Osmunda regalis L.

Rue Anemone - Thalictrum thalictroides (L.) Eames & B. Boivin

Running Myrtle see Common Periwinkle - Vinca minor L.

Running Strawberry Bush Euonymus obovata Nutt.

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St. Johnswort, Common - Hypericum perforatum L.

St. Johnswort, Great - Hypericum pyramidatum Aiton

Sandwort, Blunt-leaf - Moehringia lateriflora L. [old- Arenaria lateriflora]

Satin Grass (Mexican Muhly) - Muhlenbergia mexicana (L.) Trin.

Scaly Blazing Star - [Historical plant - not extant] - Liatris squarrosa (L.) Michx.

Scarlet Lychnis - - [Historical plant - not extant] - Lychnis chalcedonica L.

Sedges

....Bottlebrush Sedge (Porcupine Sedge)– Carex hystericina Muhl. ex Willd.

....Bristly Sedge Carex comosa Boott

....Bur-reed SedgeCarex sparganioides Muhl. ex Willd.

....Broom Sedge (Lance-fruited Oval Sedge) – Carex scoparia Schkuhr ex Willd. var. scoparia [not in the Garden]

....Cattail Sedge Carex typhina Michx.

....Easter Star SedgeCarex radiata (Wahlenb.) Small

....Eastern Wood SedgeCarex blanda Dewey

....Graceful SedgeCarex gracillima Schwein.

....Hairy Wood SedgeCarex hirtifolia Mack.

....Long-stalk SedgeCarex pedunculata Muhl. ex Willd.

....Oval-leaf Sedge (Woodbank Sedge) – Carex cephalophora Muhl. ex Willd.

....Pennsylvania Sedge (Yellow Sedge) – Carex pensylvanica Lam.

....Shortbeak SedgeCarex brevior (Dewey) Mack. ex Lunell

....Sprengel's Sedge Carex sprengelii Dewey ex Spreng.

....Stellate Sedge (Rosy Sedge) – Carex rosea Schkuhr ex Willd.

....Upright Sedge Carex stricta Lam.

Self-Heal see- Heal-all -  

Sensitive Fern - Onoclea sensibilis L.

Shaggy Blazing Star - Liatris pilosa (Aiton) Willd.

Shaggy SoldierGalinsoga quadriradiata Ruiz & Pav. [Not in the Garden]

Sharp-lobed Hepatica - Anemone acutiloba(DC) G.Lawson -(Hepatica nobilis Schreb. var. acuta (Pursh) Steyerm. or Hepatica acutiloba)

Shepherd's Purse - - [Historical, not extant] - Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik.

Shining Bedstraw Galium concinnum Torr. & A. Gray

Shooting Star - (Pride of Ohio) - Dodecatheon meadia L.

Short's AsterSymphyotrichum shortii (Lindl.) G.L.Nesom

Showy Beardtongue - (Large-flowered Beardtongue) - Penstemon grandiflorus Nutt.

Showy Goldenrod - Solidago speciosa Nutt.

Showy Lady's-slipper - Cypripedium reginae Walter

Showy Tick-trefoil - (Canada Tick-trefoil) - Desmodium canadense (L.) DC.

Shrubby Cinquefoil Dasiphora fruticosa (L.) Rydb. [Historical, not extant]

Siberian Squill - see Blue Squill - Scilla siberica Haw.

Side-flowering Aster (Calico Aster) - Symphyotrichum lateriflorum (L.) A. Love & D. Love [old- Aster lateriflorus]

Sideoats Grama (grass) - Bouteloua curtipendula (Michx.) Torr.

Silky Aster - (Western Silver Aster) - Symphyotrichum sericeum (Vent.) G.L. Nesom

Silver Cinquefoil - Potentilla argentea L.

Silvery False Spleenwort - Deparia acrostichoides (SW.) M. Kato

Silvery Scurf Pea - Pediomelum argophyllum (Pursh) J. Grimes

Sissileleaf Bellwort -see- Wild Oats - Uvularia sessilifolia L.

Skullcaps -See:
- Mad-dog Skullcap
- Marsh Skullcap

Skunk Cabbage - Symplocarpus foetidus (L.) Salisb. ex W.P.C. Barton

Sky Blue Aster - Symphyotrichum oolentangiense (Riddell) G.L. Nesom var. oolentangiense [old - Aster azureus]

Smartweeds: see -
- Dotted Smartweed
- Spotted Lady's-thumb
- Water Smartweed

Smooth Blue Aster - Symphyotrichum laeve var. laeve (L.) A. Löve & D. Löve [old- Aster laevis]

Smooth Brome (grass) - Bromus inermis Leyss.

Smooth Oxeye - Heliopsis helianthoides (L) Sweet var. scraba

Smooth Rockcress - Boechera laevigata (Muhl. ex Willd.) Al-Shehbaz former Arabis laevigata

Smooth Solomon's Seal (Great Solomon's Seal) - Polygonatum biflorum (Walter) Elliott var. commutatum

Smooth Sweet Cicely -see- Anise Root - Osmorhiza longistylis (Torr.) DC.

Sneezeweed - - [Historical, not extant.] - Helenium autumnale L.

Snow Trillium - Trillium nivale Riddell

Soapwort see - Bouncing Bet - Saponaria officinalis L.

Solomon's Seals - see
- Great Solomon’s Seal (Smooth Solomon’s Seal)
- False Solomon’s Seal

Sow Thistles - see
- Field Sow Thistle
- Spiny Sow Thistle

Spiderwort - See Ohio Spiderwort - (Bluejacket) - Tradescantia ohiensis Raf.

Spiderwort - (Bracted Spiderwort) - Tradescantia bracteata Small

Spiked Blazing Star see Dense Blazing Star - Liatris spicata (L.) Willd.

Spinulose Wood Fern - Dryopteris carthusiana (Vill.) H.P.Fuchs

Spiny Sow Thistle - Sonchus asper (L.) Hill

Spotted Bee-balm (Horsemint) - Monarda punctata L. [Historical Garden Plant - not extant].

Spotted Geranium -see- Wild Geranium - Geranium maculatum L.

Spotted Joe-Pye Weed - Eutrochium maculatum (L.) E.E.Lamont (former- Eupatorium maculatum)

Spotted Knapweed Centaurea biebersteinii L.

Spotted Lady's-thumb - - [not in the Garden] - Persicaria maculosa Gray

Spotted Touch-me-not - (Jewelweed) - Impatiens capensis Meerb. ( old - I. biflora)

Spreading Dogbane - Apocynum androsaemifolium L.

Spreading Jacob's Ladder - Polemonium reptans L.

Spring Beauty - see Virginia Spring Beauty - Claytonia virginica L.

Star Chickweed Stellaria pubera Michx.

Starflower - Trientalis borealis Raf.

Starry False Solomon's Seal - Maianthemum stellatum (L.) Link

Starry Campion (Widowsfrill) - Silene stellata (L.) W.T. Aiton [Historical Garden Plant - not extant].

Stickywilly -see- Cleavers - Galium aparine L.

Stiff Coreopsis - Coreopsis palmata Nutt.

Stiff Goldenrod - Solidago rigida L. [Oligoneuron rigidum (L.) Small var. rigidum]

Stiff-haired Sunflower - Helianthus hirsutus Raf.

Stiff Tickseed - see Stiff Coreopsis - Coreopsis palmata Nutt.

Stinging Nettle - Urtica dioica L.

Strawberries (wild) -See:
- Common Strawberry (Virginia Strawberry)
- Woodland Strawberry

Yellow Sunflower types and look-a-likes- see:
- Compass Plant
- Cup Plant
- Giant (Tall) Sunflower
- Stiff-haired Sunflower (Woodland Sunflower, Hairy Sunflower)
- Paleleaf Sunflower
- Prairie Dock (Prairie Rosinweed)
- Rosinweed
- Smooth Oxeye
- Sneezeweed
- Western (Few-leaved)
- Wingstem

Swamp Beggartick - (Purple-stem Beggartick) - Bidens connata Muhl. ex Willd.

Swamp Blackberry Rubus semisetosus Blanch.

Swamp Buttercup - (Bristly Buttercup) - Ranunculus hispidus Michx. var nitidus

Swamp Candles (Yellow Loosestrife) - Lysimachia terrestis (L.) B.S.P.

Swamp Milkweed - Asclepias incarnata L.

Swamp Saxifrage - Eastern - Micranthes pensylvanica (L.) Haw. former Saxifraga pensylvanica L.

Swamp Vervain (Blue Vervain) - Verbena hastata L.

Sweet Betsy - Trillium cuneatum Raf.

Sweet Black-eyed Susan - (Sweet Coneflower) - [not in the Garden] - Rudbeckia subtomentosa Pursh

Sweet CicelyMyrrhis odorata (L.) Scop. [Not in the Garden}

Sweet Fern - Comptonia peregrina (L.) J.M. Coult

Sweet Flag - [Historical, not extant] - Acorus calamus L.

Sweet-scented Bedstraw -see Fragrant Bedstraw -  

Sweet Scented Joe-Pye Weed - Eutrochium purpureum (L.) E.E.Lamont former Eupatorium purpureum L.

Sweet Rocket - see Dame's Rocket -  

Sweet Viburnum: See Nannyberry - Viburnum lentago L.

Switch Grass - Panicum virgatum L.

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Tall Bellflower - (American Bellflower) - Campanulastrum americanum (L.) Small

Tall Blue Lettuce Lactuca biennis (Moench) Fernald [not in the Garden]

Tall Buttercup - Ranunculus acris L.

Tall Goldenrod - see Late Goldenrod. - Solidago altissima L.

Tall Larkspur - (not in Garden) - Delphinium exaltatum Aiton

Tall Meadow Rue (Purple Meadow Rue) - Thalictrum dasycarpum Fisch & Ave-Lall.

Tall Sunflower - see Giant Sunflower - - [historical - not extant] - Helianthus giganteus L.

Tall Thimbleweed - Anemone virginiana L.

Talus Slope Penstemon -see- Foxglove Beardtongue) - Penstemon digitalis Nutt. ex Sims

Tansy - - [Historical, not extant.] - Tanacetum vulgare L.

Thimbleberry - (Flowering Raspberry) - Rubus parviflorus Nutt.

Thimbleweed - Anemone cylindrica A.Gray

Thin-leaved Coneflower - Rudbeckia triloba L.

Thistles - see -
-Bull Thistle -
-Canada Thistle -
-Field Thistle-
-Comparison sheet - - all Minnesota Thistles

Threepetal Bedstraw - Galium trifidum L.

Thyme-leaf SpeedwellVeronica serpyllifolia L. [Historical, not extant]

Tick Trefoils - see:
- Canada Tick-trefoil (Showy Tick-trefoil)
- Pointed-leaved Tick-trefoil

Timothy - Phleum pratense L.

Toadflax, Bastard - Comandra umbellata (L.) Nutt.

Toadshade - (Sessile Trillium) - Trillium sessile L.

Trilliums - see:
- Drooping Trillium (Nodding Wakerobin or Declining Trillium)
- Large-flowered Trillium (White Trillium)
- Prairie Trillium
- Purple Trillium
- Red Trillium
- Snow Trillium
- Sweet Betsy
- Toadshade (Sessile Trillium)
- Yellow Trillium (Yellow Wakerobin)

Toothworts -see:
- Cut-leaved Toothwort
- Two-leaved Toothwort

Touch-me-nots -see:
- Pale Touch-me-not (a Jewelweed)
- Spotted Touch-me-not (a Jewelweed)

Trailing Wild Bean - (Amberique Bean) - Strophostyles helvola (L.) Elliott

Trees and Large Shrubs - see bottom of page

Tufted Loosestrife - Lysimachia thyrsiflora L.

True Forget-me-not - Myosotis scorpioides L.

Turk's-cap Lily & Michigan Lily - Lilium superbum L. and Lilium michiganense L.

Turtlehead - (White Turtlehead) - Chelone glabra L.

Twinleaf - Jeffersonia diphylla (L.) Pers.

Two-leaved Toothwort - Cardamine diphylla (Michx) Alph. Wood [former - Dentaria diphylla ]

Twoleaf Mitrewort - (Bishop's Cap) - Mitella diphylla L.

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Upright Prairie Coneflower -see- Long-headed Coneflower - Ratibida columnifera (Nutt.) Woot. & Standl.

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Veiny Pea (Veiny Vetchling) - Lathyrus venosus Muhl. ex Willd.

Vervains - see:
- Hoary Vervain
- Swamp (Blue) Vervain
- White Vervain

Violets - see:
- Arrowleaf Violet
- Bird's-foot Violet
- Canada Violet
- Common Blue Violet, (Woolly Blue Violet)
- Downy Yellow Violet
- Prairie Birdsfoot Violet

Virgin's Bower - Clematis virginiana L.

Virginia Bluebells - Mertensia virginica (L.) Pers. ex Link

Virginia Creeper - Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch.

Virginia Ground Cherry - - [Historical - not extant] - Physalis virginiana Mill.

Virginia Mountain Mint - Pycnanthemum virginianum (L.) T. Dur. & B.D.Jackson ex B.L. Robins & Fernald.

Virginia Spring Beauty - - [Historical, not extant] - Claytonia virginica L.

Virginia Stickseed - (Beggar's Lice) - Hackelia virginiana (L.) I. M. Johnst.

Virginia Strawberry -see- Common Strawberry - Fragaria virginiana Duchesne

Virginia Waterleaf - (Eastern Waterleaf) - Hydrophyllum virginianum L.

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Water Arum -see- Wild Calla - Calla palustris L.

Water Chickweed -see - Long-leaved Chickweed - Stellaria longifolia Muhl. ex Willd.

Water Hemlock - - [Historical, not extant] - Cicuta maculata L.

Water Horehound Lycopus americanus Muhl. ex W.P.C. Barton

Water Horsetail - Equisetum fluviatile L.

Water Smartweed - - [not in the Garden] - Persicaria amphibia (L.) Gray

Western Mugwort -see- White Sagebrush - Artemisia ludoviciana Nutt.

Western Panicgrass - Dichanthelium acuminatum (Sw.) Gould & C.A. Clark var. fasciculatum (Torr.) Freckmann

Western Poison Ivy - (not in the Garden) - Toxicodendron rydbergii (Small ex Rydb.) Greene

Western Silver Aster - (Silky Aster) - Symphyotrichum sericeum (Vent.) G.L. Nesom

Western Sunflower (Few-leaved Sunflower) [Historical, not extant]– Helianthus occidentalis Riddell

White Arrowleaf Aster - (Arrow-leaved Aster) - Symphyotrichum urophyllum (Lindl.) G.L. Nesom

White Avens - Geum canadense Jacq.

White Baneberry - Actaea pachypoda Elliot

White Campion - - [Historical, not extant] - Silene latifolia Poir.

White Clover - Trifolium repens L.

White False Indigo - Baptisia alba (L) Vent. var. macrophylla [older - B. lactea (Raf.) Thieret var. lactea

White Fawn Lily -see- White Trout lily - Erythronium albidum Nutt.

White Heath Aster - (Many-flowered Aster) - Symphyotrichum ericoides (L.) G. L. Nesom [old- Aster ericoides]

White Panicle Aster - Symphyotrichum lanceolatum var. lanceolatum (Willd.) Nesom

White Prairie Clover - Dalea candida Michx. ex Willd [old Petalostemon purpureum]

White Rattlesnake Root - Prenanthes alba L.

White Sagebrush (Prairie Sage) - Artemisia ludoviciana Nutt. subsp. ludoviciana

White Snakeroot - Ageratina altissima L. [old- Eupatorium rugosum]

White Sweet Clover - Melilotus alba Medikus

White Trillium -see- Large Flowered Trillium - Trillium grandiflorum (Michx) Salisb.

White Trout-lily - (White Fawn Lily) - Erythronium albidum Nutt.

White Turtlehead - see Turtlehead -  

White Vervain - Verbena urticifolia L.

White Wood Aster - Eurybia divaricata (L.) G. L. Nesom

Wholeleaf Rosinweed - (Rosinweed) - Silphium integrifolium Michx.

Whorled Loosestrife - Lysimachia quadrifolia L.

Whorled Milkweed - Asclepias verticillata L.

Widowsfrill - see Starry Campion - Silene stellata (L.) W.T. Aiton

Wild Anise - see Blue Giant Hyssop - Agastache foeniculum (Pursh) Kuntze

Wild Bean -see- Groundnut - Apios americana Medik.

Wild Bergamot - Monarda fistulosa L.

Wild Blue Indigo - see False Blue Indigo - Baptisia australis (L.) R. Br.

Wild Blue Phlox - Phlox divaricata L.

Wild Calla (Water Arum) - Calla palustris L.

Wild Columbine - (Red Columbine) - Aquilegia canadensis L.

Wild Cucumber - (not extant) - Echinocystis lobata (Michx.) Torr. & A. Gray

Wild Four-o clock: See Heart-leaved Four O'clock - Mirabilis nyctaginea (Michx.) MacMill.

Wild Garlic - Allium canadense L.

Wild Geranium - (Spotted Geranium) - Geranium maculatum L.

Wild Ginger - (Canadian Wild Ginger) - Asarum canadense L.

Wild Grape -see- Riverbank Grape - Vitis riparia Michx.

Wild Leek - (Ramp) - Allium tricoccum Sol.

Wild Lettuce - Lactuca canadensis L.

Wild Lupine - Lupinus perennis L.

Wild Mint - (Field Mint) - Mentha arvensis L. var. canadensis

Wild Morning Glory: See Hedge Bindweed) - Calystegia sepium (L.) R. Br. (old - Convolvulus sepium)

Wild Oats - (Sissileleaf Bellwort) - Uvularia sessilifolia L.

Wild Onion - (Autumn Onion) - Allium stellatum Fraser ex Ker Gawl.

Wild Pea - see Veiny Pea - Lathyrus venosus Muhl. ex Willd.

Wild Poinsettia - Euphorbia cyathophora Murray

Wild Quinine - (American Feverfew) - Parthenium integrifolium L.

Wild Red Raspberry - Rubus idaeus L. var. strigosus (Michx.) Focke

Wild Rye - Elymus sp.

Wild Sarsaparilla Aralia nudicaulis L.

Wild Senna - Senna hebecarpa (Fernald) Irwin & Barneby

Wild Sweet William - - [Historical, not extant] - Phlox maculata L.

Wild White Indigo - see White False Indigo - Baptisia alba (L) Vent. var. macrophylla

Wild Yamroot Dioscorea villosa L.

Willow Amsonia -see Eastern Bluestar - Amsonia tabernaemontana Walt.

Willowherb - Epilobium coloratum Biehler

Wingstem - - [not in the Garden] - Verbesina alternifolia (L.) Britton ex Kearney

Winter Cress - - [Not in the Garden] - Barbarea vulgaris R.Br.

Wintergreen (Eastern Teaberry) - Gaultheria procumbens L.

Witch's Moneybags - see- Live Forever - Hylotelephium telephium (L.) H. Ohba. [old- Sedum telephium]

Wood Anemone - Anemone quinquefolia L.

Wood Lily Lilium philadelphicum L.

Wood Nettle - (Canadian Wood Nettle) - Laportea canadensis (L.) Weddell

Wood Poppy - (Celandine Poppy) - Stylophorum diphyllum (Michx.) Nutt.

Wood Sage - see Canada Germander - Teucrium canadense L.

Woodbine (Grape Woodbine) - Parthenocissus vitacea (Knerr) Hitchc.

Woodland Strawberry - Fragaria vesca L.

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Yarrow - Achillea millefolium L.

Yellow Avens - Geum aleppicum Jacq.

Yellow Day Lily - Hemerocallis lilioasphodelus L. (Old H. flava)

Yellow Flag Iris - (Pale Yellow Iris) - Iris pseudacorus L.

Yellow Foxtail (grass) - Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult. ssp. pumila

Yellow Goatsbeard - see Meadow Goatsbeard - Tragopogon pratensis L. [Old - Tragopogon lamottei Rouy]

Yellow Hawkweed see Canadian Hawkweed - Hieracium canadense var. canadense Michx.

Yellow Lady's-slipper (Greater) - Cypripedium parviflorum Salisb. var. pubescens (Willd.) Knight (older -Cypripedium calceolus var. pubescens)

Yellow Marsh Marigold -see- Marsh Marigold - Caltha palustris L.

Yellow Ox-eye - see Smooth Oxeye - Heliopsis helianthoides (L) Sweet var. scraba

Yellow Oxalis, Yellow Wood Sorrel -see Common Yellow Oxalis - Oxalis stricta L.

Yellow Rocket - - [not in the Garden] - Barbarea vulgaris R.Br.

Yellow Salsify - Tragopogon dubius Scop.

Yellow Sedge (Pennsylvania Sedge) - Carex pensylvanica Lam.

Yellow Sweet Clover - Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam.

Yellow Trillium - (Yellow Wakerobin) - Trillium luteum (Muhl.) Harbison

Yellow Trout-lily - (Dogtooth Violet) - Erythronium americanum Ker Gawl.

Yellow Violet -see- Downey Yellow Violet - Viola pubescens Aiton

Yellow Wakerobin -see- Yellow Trillium - Trillium luteum (Muhl.) Harbison

Yellow Wood Sorrel - Oxalis stricta L.

Yellow Wood Sorrel Oxalis dillenii Jacq.

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Zigzag Goldenrod - Solidago flexicaulis L.

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Trees and Large Shrubs

Alder - Speckled - Alnus incana (L.) Moench subsp. rugosa

American Basswood - Tilia americana L.

American Bladdernut - Staphylea trifolia L.

American Cranberrybush - Viburnum opulus L. var. americanum Aiton.

American Hazelnut - Corylus americana Walter

American Horse-chestnut - see Ohio Buckeye -  

American Plum -see- Wild Plum - Prunus americana Marsh.

American YewTaxus canadensis Marshall

Arrowwoods

----Downy Arrowwood - Viburnum rafinesquianum Schult.

----Southern Arrowwood - Viburnum dentatum L.

Ashes

----Black Ash - Fraxinus nigra Marshall

----Green Ash - Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall

----White Ash - Fraxinus americana L.

Aspens

----Bigtooth Aspen - Populus grandidentata Michx.

----Quaking Aspen - Populus tremuloides Michx.

Balm of Gilead (Balsam Popular) - Populus balsamifera L. subsp. balsamifera

Beaked Hazelnut - - [Historical, not extant] - Corylus cornuta Marshall subsp. cornuta

Birches

----Bog Birch Betula pumila L.

----Paper Birch (White Birch) - Betula papyrifera Marshall

----River Birch - Betula nigra L.

----Sweet Birch - Betula lenta L.

----Yellow Birch - Betula alleghaniensis Britton

Black Alder See - Winterberry - Ilex verticillata (L.) A. Gray

Black Locust - Robinia pseudoacacia L.

Black Walnut - Juglans nigra L.

Bladdernut see American Bladdernut - Staphylea trifolia L.

Blue Beech (Musclewood) - Carpinus caroliniana Walter ssp. virginiana

Box Elder - Acer negundo L.

Buckthorn - Common - Rhamnus cathartica L.

Buckthorn - Glossy - - Frangula alnus Mill. [Rhamnus frangula L.]

Buffalo- Shepherdia Argentea (Pursh) Nutt.

Butternut - Juglans cinerea L.

Buttonbush - Cephalanthus occidentalis L.

Brambles

----Allegheny Blackberry - Rubus allegheniensis Porter

----Black Raspberry - Rubus occidentalis L.

----Dewberry - (Northern Dewberry) - Rubus flagellaris Willd.

----Purple Flowering Raspberry - - [historical - not extant] - Rubus odoratus L.

----Thimbleberry - (Flowering Raspberry) - Rubus parviflorus Nutt.

----Wild Red Raspberry - Rubus idaeus L. var. strigosus (Michx.) Focke

Cedars

----Eastern Red Cedar - Juniperus virginiana L.

----Northern White Cedar - Thuja occidentalis L.

Cherries

----Black Cherry - Prunus serotina Ehrh.

----Chokecherry - Prunus virginiana L.

----Pin Cherry - Prunus pensylvanica L.f.

----Western Sand Cherry - - [historic, not extant] = Prunus pumila L. var. besseyi (L.H. Bailey) Gleason

Chokeberry

----Black Chokeberry - - Photinia melanocarpa (Michx.) K.R. Robertson & Phipps, alternatively- Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Elliott

----Red Chokeberry - [Historical - not extant] - Photinia pyrifolia Lam. - alternatively - Aronia arbutifolia (L.) Pers.

Common Buttonbush - Cephalanthus occidentalis L.

Common Ninebark - see- Ninebark - Physocarpus opulifolius (L.) Maxim.

Coralberry - Symphoricarpos orbiculatus Moench

Cottonwood (Plains Cottonwood) - Populus deltoides Bartram ex Marshall

Cranberry

----American Cranberrybush (Highbush Cranberry) - Viburnum opulus L. var. americanum Aiton. [Old = Viburnum trilobum]

----European Cranberrybush - Viburnum opulus L. var. opulus

Currants

----American Black Currant - (Wild Black Currant) - Ribes americanum Mill.

----Garden Currant - Ribes rubrum L.

Dogwoods

----Gray Dogwood - Cornus racemosa Lam.

----Pale Dogwood - (Silky Dogwood) - Cornus obliqua Raf.

----Pagoda Dogwood - (Alternate-leaf Dogwood) - L. f.

----Red Osier Dogwood - Cornus sericea L.

Downy Arrowwood - Viburnum rafinesquianum Schult.

Eastern Hophornbeam - see Hophornbeam - Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) Koch

Eastern Leatherwood - Dirca palustris L.

Eastern Wahoo - Euonymus atropurpurea Jacq. var. atropurpurea

Elderberries

----Canada Elderberry - (American Black Elderberry) - Sambucus nigra L. ssp. canadensis (L.) R. Bolli

----Red Elderberry - (Elderberry) (Common Elderberry) - Sambucus racemosa L.

Elms

----American Elm - Ulmus americana L.

----Red Elm (Slippery Elm) - Ulmus rubra L.

Fireberry Hawthorn - (Red Hawthorn) - Crataegus chrysocarpa Ashe

Flame Azalea - Rhododendron calendulaceum (Michx.) Torr.

Fringe Tree - Chionanthus virginicus L.

Gooseberries

----Eastern Prickly Gooseberry - - Ribes cynosbati L.

----Missouri Gooseberry - Ribes missouriense Nutt.

Hackberry - Celtis occidentalis L.

Hawthorn - Crataegus chrysocarpa Ashe

Hazelnut - see American Hazelnut -  

Hemlock - Eastern - Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière

Hickories

Bitternut Hickory - Carya cordiformis (Wangenh.) K.Koch

Shagbark Hickory - Carya ovata (Mill.) K.Koch

Highbush Cranberry - (American Cranberrybush) - Viburnum opulus L. var. americanum Aiton. [Old = Viburnum trilobum]

Honeysuckles

----Climbing Honeysuckle (Limber Honeysuckle) - Lonicera dioica L.

----Northern Bush Honeysuckle - Diervilla lonicera Mill.

----Tatarian Honeysuckle Lonicera tatarica L.

Hoptree - Ptelea trifoliata L.

Hophornbeam - (Ironwood) - Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) Koch

Ironwood See Hophornbeam - Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) Koch

Kentucky Coffeetree - Gymnocladus dioicus (L.) K. Koch

Larch See: Tamarack - Larix laricina (Du Roi) K. Koch

Leatherwood: See Eastern Leatherwood - Dirca palustris L.

Locust

----Black Locust - Robinia pseudoacacia L.

Maples

----Amur Maple - - [not in Garden] - Acer ginnala Maxim.

----Black Sugar Maple - Acer nigrum F.Michx. (Acer saccharum nigrum)

----Box Elder - Acer negundo L.

----Mountain Maple - Acer spicatum Lam.

----Norway Maple - Acer platanoides L.

----Red Maple - Acer rubrum L.

----Silver Maple - Acer saccharinum L.

----Striped Maple - Acer pensylvanicum L.

----Sugar Maple - Acer saccharum Marshall

Mock Orange - Philadelphus sp.

Mountain Ash

----European Mountain Ash - Sorbus aucuparia L. - [Not in Garden]

----Showy Mountain Ash - Sorbus decora (Sarg.) C.K.Schneid.

Musclewood (Blue Beech) - Carpinus caroliniana Walter ssp. virginiana

Nannyberry - Viburnum lentago L.

Ninebark - Physocarpus opulifolius (L.) Maxim.

Oaks

----Black Oak - Quercus velutina Lam.

----Bur Oak - Quercus macrocarpa Michx.

----Northern Pin Oak - Quercus ellipsoidalis E. J. Hill

----Northern Red Oak - Quercus rubra L.

----Pin Oak - Quercus palustris Münchh.

----Scarlet Oak - Quercus coccinea Münchh. [Historical - not extant]

----Swamp White Oak - Quercus bicolor Willd.

----White Oak - Quercus alba L.

----Oak Leaf Comparison Sheet -  

Ohio Buckeye - (American Horse-chestnut) - Aesculus glabra Willd.

Pines

----Eastern White Pine - Pinus strobus L.

----Jack Pine - Pinus banksiana Lamb. [Historical - not extant]

----Red Pine (Norway Pine) - Pinus resinosa Aiton.

Pinkshell Azalea - Rhododendron vaseyi A. Gray

Prairie Willow - Salix humilis Marshall

Prickly-ash - Zanthoxylum americanum Mill.

Pussy Willow - Salix discolor Muhl.

Red Juniper: See cedars - Eastern Red Cedar - Juniperus virginiana L.

Roses

----Carolina Rose - (Pasture Rose) - Rosa carolina L.

----Climbing Rose - (Illinois Rose) - Rosa setigera Michx.

----Prairie Rose - (Arkansas Rose) - Rosa arkansana Porter

----Prickly Rose - Rosa acicularlis Lindl.

----Smooth Rose - Rosa blanda Aiton

----Swamp Rose - (not in Garden) - Rosa palustris Marshall

----Woods' Rose - Rosa woodsii Lindl.

----Wild Roses Comparison Sheet - All 6 roses in the Garden

Serviceberry

----Allegheny Serviceberry - Amelanchier laevis Wiegand

----Downy Serviceberry - (Downy Juneberry) - Amelanchier arborea (F. Michx.) Fernald

----Running Serviceberry (Creeping Juneberry) - Amelanchier spicata (Lam.) K.Koch

----Saskatoon Serviceberry - Amelanchier alnifolia (Nutt.) Nutt. ex Roemer

----Shadblow Serviceberry - Amelanchier canadensis (L.) Medik.

Showy Mountain Ash - Sorbus decora (Sarg.) C.K.Schneid.

Snowberry - Symphoricarpos albus (L.) Blake

Southern Arrowwood - Viburnum dentatum L.

Speckled Alder - Alnus incana (L.) Moench subsp. rugosa

Spruces

----Black Spruce - Picea mariana (Miller) B.S.P.

----Norway Spruce - Picea abies (L.) Karst.

----White Spruce - Picea glauca (Moench) Voss

Sumacs

----Fragrant Sumac - Rhus aromatica Aiton

----Smooth Sumac - Rhus glabra L.

----Staghorn Sumac - Rhus hirta (L.) Sudworth [Rhus typhina L. ]

Tamarack (Larch) - Larix laricina (Du Roi) K. Koch

Wahoo - see Eastern Wahoo -  

Wayfaring-tree - Viburnum lantana L.

Wild Plum - Prunus americana Marsh.

Willows

----Black Willow - Salix nigra Marshall

----Prairie Willow Salix humilis Marshall

----Pussy Willow - Salix discolor Muhl.

Winterberry - Ilex verticillata (L.) A. Gray

Witch Hazel - Hamamelis virginiana L.

Wolfberry - Symphoricarpos occidentalis Hook.

Yellowwood - Cladrastis kentukea (Dum. Cours.) Rudd

Yews

----American YewTaxus canadensis Marshall

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Common Invasive Non-native Plants

Plants listed here are from the Minnesota invasive non-native terrestrial plant list of the MN DNR with a few additions from the Federal Prohibited and Noxious Plants List and some common plants that are not listed but are invasive. Those in the Garden are kept under control.

Amur Maple - [not in Garden] - Acer ginnala Maxim.

Birdsfoot Trefoil - - [not in Garden]Lotus corniculatus L.

Black Bindweed - Fallopia convolvulus (L.) A.Löve

Black Locust - Robinia pseudoacacia L.

Black Mustard [not in Garden] - Brassica nigra (L.) W.D.J.Koch

Buckthorn - Common - Rhamnus cathartica L.

Buckthorn - Glossy - Frangula alnus Mill. [Rhamnus frangula L.]

Bull Thistle - [not in Garden] - Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten.

Burnweed - Erechtites hieracifolia (L.) Raf ex DC

Butter and Eggs - Linaria vulgaris Mill.

Canada Thistle - Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.

Canadian Horseweed - Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist

Chicory - Cichorium intybus L.

Creeping Charlie - (Ground Ivy) - Glechoma hederacea L.

Crown Vetch (not in Garden) - Coronilla varia L.

Dodder - Common - Cuscuta gronovii Willd. ex. Schult

European Bellflower - Campanula rapunculoides L.

Everlasting Pea [not in Garden] - Lathyrus latifolius L.

Feverfew - [not in Garden] - Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Sch.Bip.

Field Pennycress - [not in Garden] - Thlaspi arvense L.

Field Sow Thistle - [not in Garden] - Sonchus arvensis L.

Garlic Mustard - Alliaria petiolata (M. Bieb.) Cavara & Grande

Grecian Foxglove - Digitalis lanata Ehrh.

Helleborine - Epipactis helleborine (L.) Crantz

Hoary Alyssum - [not in Garden] - Berteroa incana (L.) DC.

Japanese Hedge Parsley - [not in Garden] - Torilis japonica (Houtt.) DC.

Japanese Knotweed - Fallopia japonica (Houtt.) Ronse Decraene var. japonica

Leafy Spurge - Euphorbia esula L.

Norway Maple - Acer platanoides L.

Orange Hawkweed - Hieracium aurantiacum L.

Oxeye Daisy - Leucanthemum vulgare Lam

Purple Loosestrife - Lythrum salicaria L.

Shaggy SoldierGalinsoga quadriradiata Ruiz & Pav. [Not in the Garden]

Shepherd's Purse - [not in Garden] - Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik.

Smooth Brome (grass) - Bromus inermis Leyss.

Spotted Knapweed - Centaurea biebersteinii L.

Tansy - [not in Garden] - Tanacetum vulgare L.

Thyme-leaf SpeedwellVeronica serpyllifolia L. [Historical, not extant]

Virginia Ground Cherry - - [not in Garden] - Physalis virginiana Mill.

White Clover - Trifolium repens L.

White Sweet Clover - Melilotus alba Medikus

Yellow Flag Iris - (Pale Yellow Iris) - Iris pseudacorus L.

Yellow Rocket - - [not in Garden] - Barbarea vulgaris R.Br.

Yellow Sweet Clover - Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam.

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For References used on the plant pages see: Reference List -

The complete Vascular Plant Census -2009, created by the Minneapolis Park & Recreation Board. Download as a pdf file (2.4 mb) -

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